|Development, phylogeny, and taxonomy of Bostrycapulus (Caenogastropoda: Calyptraeidae), an ancient cryptic radiation|
Collin, R. (2005). Development, phylogeny, and taxonomy of Bostrycapulus (Caenogastropoda: Calyptraeidae), an ancient cryptic radiation. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 144(1): 75-101
In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Academic Press: London. ISSN 0024-4082, more
Biogeography; New species; Sibling species; Bostrycapulus Olsson & Harbison, 1953 [WoRMS]; Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine
Calyptraeid gastropods are well know for the taxonomic difficulties caused by their simple, phenotypically variable shells. In this paper I demonstrate that what was previously considered to be a single species, Crepidula aculeata, is an ancient (3-15 Myr) cryptic species complex made up of at least eight species, and that this group should be placed in the genus Bostrycapulus. Despite the difficulty in finding diagnostic adult shell and anatomical features upon which species can be unambiguously identified, DNA sequences, protoconch morphology, embryonic morphology and developmental characters clearly differentiate these eight species. A single species with direct development and nurse eggs is present in the South Atlantic, and a species with planktotrophic development occurs in the equatorial Pacific. The species from Japan, Australia, Florida, the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America, and the Cape Verde Islands all have direct development. Most of these species are separated by > 15% divergence in COI sequence data. The fossil record of Bostrycapulus goes back to the Miocene, which agrees with genetic estimates of divergences within the genus ranging from 3 to 15 Mya. Surprisingly, these ancient species differ only slightly in morphology from each other and genetic differentiation does not correlate with geographical distance. I revise the genus Bostrycapulus on the basis of differences in adult morphology, embryonic morphology, mode of development, protoconch morphology, and DNA sequence data. I also describe four new species (B. pritzkeri sp. nov., B. odites sp. nov., B. latebrus sp. nov. and B. urraca sp. nov.) and remove three others (B. gravispinosus, B. calyptraeformis, and B. cf. tegulicius) from synonymy with B. aculeatus.