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Adaptations for living deep: a new bathypelagic doliolid, from the eastern North Pacific
Robinson, B.H.; Raskoff, K.A.; Sherlock, R.E. (2005). Adaptations for living deep: a new bathypelagic doliolid, from the eastern North Pacific. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 85(3): 595-602
In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press/Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: Cambridge. ISSN 0025-3154, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    New records; Doliolida [WoRMS]; Pseudusa bostigrinus Robison, Raskoff & Sherlock, 2005 [WoRMS]; ISEW, North Pacific [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Robinson, B.H.
  • Raskoff, K.A.
  • Sherlock, R.E.

Abstract
    Adapting to the bathypelagic habitat imposes serious challenges for taxa that originate in shallower depths. We describe a new doliolid that has successfully made the transition into deep water. Nine specimens of Pseudusabostigrinus have been found at depths between 1164 and 1890 m in three distinct regions of the eastern North Pacific. This new thaliacean has exchanged the typical doliolid body plan for one resembling a craspedote hydromedusa. This adaptation allows it to collect sinking particles by simply directing its large buccal opening upward. The development of a hydromedusa-like velum allows it to trap zooplankton prey and to propel itself with considerable force and control. While carnivory is not unknown in tunicates, this is the first report of a carnivorous doliolid. The endostyle of P.bostigrinus is greatly reduced, there are no ciliated bands, and there is no spiral gland; all evidence that mucus feeding filters have been abandoned by this species. Anatomy, diet, behaviour, and habitat distinguish this doliolid from all others described to date.

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