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Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)
Sokolova, I.M.; Ringwood, A.H.; Johnson, C. (2005). Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae). Aquat. Toxicol. 74(3): 218-228. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.05.012
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Accumulation; Cadmium; Lysosomes; Mitochondria; Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Sokolova, I.M.
  • Ringwood, A.H.
  • Johnson, C.

Abstract
    Cadmium distribution was studied in different subcellular fractions of gill and hepatopancreas tissues of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Oysters were exposed for up to 21 days to low sublethal Cd concentrations (25 μg L−1). Gill and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled and divided into organelle fractions and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Organelle content of different fractions was verified by activities of marker enzymes, citrate synthase and acid phosphatase for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. In both tissue types, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium in cytosol reaching 230–350 ng mg−1 protein. Among organelles, mitochondria were the main target for Cd bioaccumulation in gills (250–300 ng mg−1 protein), whereas in hepatopancreas tissues, the highest cadmium accumulation occurred in lysosomes (90–94 ng mg−1 protein). Although 75–83% of total cadmium burden was associated with the cytosol reflecting high volume fraction of this compartment, Cd concentrations in organelle fractions reached levels that could cause dysfunction of mitochondria and lysosomes. Organ- and organelle-specific patterns of cadmium bioaccumulation support our previous in vivo studies, which showed adverse effects of cadmium exposures on mitochondrial oxidation in gills and on the lysosomal system of hepatopancreas. This may have important implications for the development of biomarkers of effect for heavy metals and for understanding the mechanisms of toxic effects of metals.

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