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Size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and species composition in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during austral summer
Fiala, M.; Semeneh, M.; Oriol, L. (1998). Size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and species composition in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during austral summer. J. Mar. Syst. 17(1-4): 179-194
In: Journal of Marine Systems. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0924-7963, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Fiala, M.; Semeneh, M.; Oriol, L. (1998). Size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and species composition in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during austral summer, in: Le Fèvre, J. et al. (Ed.) Carbon Fluxes and Dynamic Processes in the Southern Ocean: Present and Past. Selected papers from the International JGOFS Symposium, Brest, France, 28-31 August 1995. Journal of Marine Systems, 17(1-4): pp. 179-194. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00037-2, more

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 288520 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Algae; Biomass; Chlorophylls; Community composition; Pelagic environment; Phytoplankton; Size distribution; Summer; PS, Southern Ocean [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Fiala, M.
  • Semeneh, M.
  • Oriol, L.

Abstract
    During the late austral summer of 1994, Antarctic waters were characterized by low phytoplankton biomass. Along the 62°E meridian transect, between 49°S and 67°S, chlorophyll (Chl.) a concentration in the upper 150 m was on average 0.2 mg m-3. However, in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) chlorophyll a concentrations were higher, with a characteristic deep chlorophyll maximum. The highest value (0.6 mg Chl. a m-3) was measured at the Antarctic Divergence, 64°S, corresponding to the depth of the temperature minimum (~100 m). This deep biomass maximum decreased from South to North, disappeared in the Permanently Open Ocean Zone (POOZ) and reappeared with less vigour in the vicinity of the Polar Front Zone (PFZ). In the SIZ, the upper mixed layer was shallow, biomass was higher and the >10 µm fraction was predominant. In this zone the >10 µm, 2–10 µm and <2 µm size fractions represented on the average 46%, 25.1% and 28.9% of the total integrated Chl. a stock in the upper 100 m, respectively. The phytoplankton assemblage was diverse, mainly composed of large diatoms and dinoflagellate cells which contributed 42.7% and 33.1% of the autotrophic carbon biomass, respectively. Moving northwards, in parallel with the decrease in biomass, the biomass of autotrophic pico- and nanoflagellates (mainly Cryptophytes) increased steadily. In the POOZ, the picoplanktonic size fraction contributed 47.4% of the total integrated Chl. a stock. A phytoplankton community structure with low biomass and picoplankton-dominated assemblage in the POOZ contrasted with the relatively rich, diverse and diatom-dominated assemblage in the SIZ. These differences reflect the spatial and temporal variations prevailing in the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem.

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