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Micromorphological characteristics of a marine ferromanganese crust
Alvarez, R.; De Carlo, E.H.; Cowen, J.; Andermann, G. (1990). Micromorphological characteristics of a marine ferromanganese crust. Mar. Geol. 94(3): 239-249
In: Marine Geology. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0025-3227, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Ferromanganese oxides; Geological oceanography; Geological oceanography; Iron; Manganese; Mineral deposits; Oxides; Seabed deposits; Titanium; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Alvarez, R.
  • De Carlo, E.H.
  • Cowen, J.
  • Andermann, G.

    Marine ferromanganese oxide crust fragments sampled from a massive equatorial Pacific Ocean crust deposit exhibit distinct micromorphological features and a microchemical distribution which have not been previous reported. Black, shiny upper layers of the crust display a prismoidal microstructure and a unique crystallite habit expressed by a mosaic-like design of hexagonal and pentagonal columns. This columnar arrangement, which has been previously reported on a scale of a few millimeters in other marine Fe-Mn deposits, extends vertically for several centimeters and is observed throughout the entire horizontal plane of growth of the crust, and is the largest scale of morphological regularity observed in marine Fe-Mn deposits to date. The polygonal columnar structures which constitute the crust are mainly composed of Mn, Fe, and Ti oxides. Aluminium- and Si-rich intercolumnar space (lamellae) surrounds individual columns and sharply defines each polyhedron.

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