|Evolution of chemically-boring Mytilidae (Bivalvia)|
Kleemann, K. (1990). Evolution of chemically-boring Mytilidae (Bivalvia), in: Morton, B. (Ed.) The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 111-124
In: Morton, B. (Ed.) (1990). The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Hong Kong University Press: Hong Kong. ISBN 962-209-273-X. 355 pp., more
Most of the 34 species of Recent boring Mytilidae considered here use chemical means - a modified shell-resorbing ability, common in molluscs (Kühnelt, 1930) - for boring: Botula (2 spp.), Fungiacava (1 sp.), Gregariella (2 spp.) and Lithophaga (25 spp.). Only certain Adula (3-4 spp.) bore mechanically. The fossil record of chemical borers, particularly of Lithophaga s.s., is much richer and reaches further back in geological time than that of mechanical borers. Chemical boring is therefore regarded as an 'archaic' habit, and mechanical boring is considered to have developed later. The earliest possible ancestor of the boring Mytilidae might be seen in Lithodomus jenkinsoni M'Coy, perhaps an intermediate form of Botula and Lithophaga. Corallidomus scobina Pojeta and Palmer is considered to be a facultative chemical borer and to be ancestral to boring Mytilacea in general.