|Functional significance of the pediveliger in bivalve development|
Carriker, M.R. (1990). Functional significance of the pediveliger in bivalve development, in: Morton, B. (Ed.) The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 267-282
In: Morton, B. (Ed.) (1990). The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Hong Kong University Press: Hong Kong. ISBN 962-209-273-X. 355 pp., more
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The swimming-crawling, bivalve-shelled pediveliger is a critical, little-studied, transitional stage between planktonic and benthic existence in most bivalve molluscs. A review of the literature indicates that the pediveliger stage occurs in three subclasses, 31 families, and 66 genera of the Bivalvia. Pediveligers of different species are closely similar in form and swimming -locomotor function, undoubtedly an evolutionary adaptation to utilization of the common aquatic environment. Minor variations occur in shape of valves, velum, presence or absence of central flagellum in the velum, shape of foot, and presence or absence of statocysts and pallial eyes, but the basic pattern and function of the velum-foot and high motility of the larva appear common to all pediveligers. The evolution of the pediveliger stage and its significance are critically examined.