|An introduction to the razor shells (Bivalvia: Solenacea)|
von Cosel, R. (1990). An introduction to the razor shells (Bivalvia: Solenacea), in: Morton, B. (Ed.) The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 283-311
In: Morton, B. (Ed.) (1990). The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986) at the 9th International Malacological Congress, 1986, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Hong Kong University Press: Hong Kong. ISBN 962-209-273-X. 355 pp., more
The Solenacea (Solenidae with Solen and Solena and Pharidae with Ensis, Phaxas, Cultellus, Pharus, Siliqua, Sinonovacula, Pharella and Orbicularia) are a commercially important soft bottom infaunal marine bivalve group. It is proposed that Pharus, hitherto grouped in the Tellinacea, be placed in the Solenacea within the Cultellidae (which has to change its name to Pharidae as a consequence), based on conchological and anatomical characters such as the similar general arrangement of the hinge teeth, lack of a cruciform muscle, foot shape and the separate style sac and midgut. Conchological characters such as the hinge teeth arrangement and the scars of the accessory pedal musculature suggest moving Orbicularia from the Tellinacea (Psammobiidae) to the Solenacea. The Solenacea are highly specialized and successful in their biotopes, mostly fine sand, silt or mud, rarely pure mud. Solenidae are known since the early Eocene, the Pharidae since the upper Cretaceous; both families have achieved their greatest species diversity in the Recent fauna. About 60-65 living species of Solenidae are presently known. They are predominantly tropical and subtropical with the distribution centre in the Indo-West Pacific and only a few species in temperate zones. The number of Recent Pharidae is estimated at 5-57 species. Ensis is mostly warm to cold-temperate, with three tropical species, the distribution centre is NW-Europe. Pharus is exclusively Eastern Atlantic with several species in tropical West Africa. Phaxas and Cultellus are mainly tropical with few temperate species, and Siliqua ranges from cold water to the tropics. There are no Ensis in the Indo-Pacific, no Siliqua in the Eastern Atlantic, no Phaxas and Cultellu in the Western Hemisphere and no Solenacea in New Zealand. Solenacea are mostly continental, few Solen and Phaxas being recorded from oceanic islands.