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Marine insects and their reproduction
Cheng, L.; Frank, J.H. (1993). Marine insects and their reproduction. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 31: 479-506
In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press/Allen & Unwin: London. ISSN 0078-3218, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Aquatic insects; Reproduction; Marine

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  • Cheng, L., more
  • Frank, J.H.

    Of several hundred thousand insect species known to science only a handful, perhaps a few hundred species, are found in various marine environments. The majority of these marine insects (some 75 %), which spend at least part of their life cycle in a marine habitat, belong to three orders: Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), and Diptera (flies). The other orders with some marine representatives include Collembola (springtails), Mallophaga (chewing or biting lice), Anoplura (sucking lice), Homoptera (cicadas, aphids, leafhoppers, etc.), Trichoptera (caddisflies), and Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants). In at least ten of the remaining 25 orders, marine representatives have been reported but many of these are known merely as records with little or no available information about their biology or reproduction. The general literature on marine insects, with special reference to their reproduction, is brought up-to-date and about 50 species with unusual or special adaptations to the marine environments are discussed in some detail.

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