|Research on phytoplankton and pelagic Protozoa in the Mediterranean Sea from 1953 to 1966|
Bernard, F. (1967). Research on phytoplankton and pelagic Protozoa in the Mediterranean Sea from 1953 to 1966. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 5: 205-229
In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press/Allen & Unwin: London. ISSN 0078-3218, more
Pelagic environment; Phytoplankton; Protozoa [WoRMS]; MED, Mediterranean [Marine Regions]; Marine
In order to have some uniformity in this survey it will be necessary to limit it to facts which are particularly relevant to the Mediterranean and leave out methods or results which are of general application. Most of the references are only relevant to the phytoplankton proper (Myxophyceae, Diatomaceae Flagellata) and I have grouped together the large pelagic Protozoa (Radiolaria, Acantharia, Foraminifera and Ciliata); the recent work on these last four groups, especially cytological or experimental, are of little importance to the Mediterranean fauna. Apart from qualitative data reference is made to quantitative work on the 'chlorophyll' productivity, on the nutrient salts, and on algal pigments. Finally, fourteen references to bacteria have been added. In addition, some publications on brackish or very saline environments (e.g. the Dead Sea) have been considered, for it is important to know something about the euryhaline species and to compare their behaviour in these environments with that under normal sea conditions. With regard to the geographical limits adopted, we shall limit ourselves to the Mediterranean proper, from Gibraltar to the Dardanelles and shall not include the Black Sea, which has been fully dealt with by Zenkevitch (1963). In each section the Western Basin will be considered first, proceeding in a clockwise direction -Gibraltar, Spain, France, Italy, North Africa- and then the Eastern Basin will be covered in the reverse direction -Adriatic, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Turkey and Greece. As regards the literature on phytoplankton we shall cover the period from 1953 to March 1966, which includes our most recent publications. It was not until 1953 that the worldwide expansion in ecological and quantitative plankton studies reached almost all the Mediterranean countries. Earlier, this new movement (which began in France and Italy around 1936) was only followed up on a small scale, with too many local stations carrying out research which was purely morphological and descriptive in character and which, although very necessary, was by itself insufficient. Work prior to 1953 will be quoted only if reference to it is essential to an understanding of the later work.