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Towards a European strategy for integrated coastal zone management (ICZM): 1. The ICZM demonstration programme
Burbridge, P.R. (2001). Towards a European strategy for integrated coastal zone management (ICZM): 1. The ICZM demonstration programme, in: Burnell, G.M. et al. (Ed.) (2001). Aquaculture and its role in integrated coastal zone management: handbook of contributions and extended abstracts presented at the International Workshop on "Aquaculture and its role in Integrated Coastal Zone Management" Oostende, Belgium, April 19-21, 2001. pp. 9-19
In: Burnell, G.M. et al. (Ed.) (2001). Aquaculture and its role in integrated coastal zone management: handbook of contributions and extended abstracts presented at the International Workshop on "Aquaculture and its role in Integrated Coastal Zone Management" Oostende, Belgium, April 19-21, 2001. European Aquaculture Society/Flanders Marine Institute: Oostende. 145 pp., more

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  • Burbridge, P.R.

Abstract
    In response to mounting concerns over the degradation of the coastal land, waters and natural resources found in many European Coastal Zones, the European Commission initiated a demonstration programme on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in 1977. The programme was designed to help address environmental (sensitive ecology, limited resources), socio-cu1tura1 (rapid population growth, seasonal populations), and economic issues (declining traditional activities, limited employment options). The programme was supported by the Directorates of Environment, Nuclear Safety & Civil Protection, Fisheries, and Regional Policy & Cohesion, with contributions from: Environment Agency. Specific objectives of the programme were to 1) Provide concrete, technical information about sustainable management of coastal zone, and 2) Stimulate a broad debate concerning technical issues of ICZM and the relative responsibilities of various actors. An anticipated outcome of the demonstration programme was the development of a proposal for a European strategy for ICZM. The initiative was financed through the use of funds available from the Life-Environment (5.27 MECU), TERRA (6.67 MECU), PHARE (1 MECU) programmes and the Norwegian government. Individual demonstration projects were selected for funding based on key factors believed to influence the success of ICZM, and the presence of a full range of physical, social, economic and cultural conditions representative of different coastal regions of Europe. Each project was expected to 1) provide information to assist in the development of European policy (state of the environment in coastal areas, an understanding coastal dynamics (physical and human); 2) help in developing tools for use by local (and regional) initiatives. Each project was also expected to adopt a common set of desirable management features. For example, they would: seek to balance economic, social and environmental benefits over the long term; be inherently multi-disciplinary; seek the integration of the terrestrial and marine components; strive for mean integration of all relevant policy areas, sectors and levels of administration; use informed participation and cooperation of all interested and affected parties to assess the societal objectives. During the course of developing the 35 demonstration project, a series of six thematic studies was undertaken. The topics studied included: Information for ICZM, EU Policy and its effects on coastal areas and their development, Technologies to support ICZM, Legal aspects of ICZM, Public Participation, and elements of good practice in Sectoral and Territorial Integration. A seventh study was commissioned that examined the social and economic benefis that could be derived from ICZM. A set of principles for effective ICZM developed during the life of the programme included: adoption of a wide-ranging perspective based on an understanding of specific conditions in the area of interest; working with natural processes: use participatory planning to develop consensus; ensuring the support and involvement of all relevant bodies; use a combination of instruments; ensuring that decisions taken today do not foreclose options for the future. Experience gained from the individual projects demonstrated: the diversity of approaches to ICZM and issues; the importance of developing motive/motivation to undertake ICZM; the need to build mutual trust and a "common language" of ICZM; the importance of capacity building; and the need to remember links with the hinterland (river catchment areas, markets, etc.) The EC took steps to ensure an active and fruitful dialogue with and between projects through meetings with project leaders, and meetings of "nation" experts. The EC also stimulated an informed debate within the broader Community over the findings of the Demonstration programme prior to publishing any final recommendations. To assist in this debate, the EC published a Discussion Document and the reports of thematic experts. These can be obtained from the Commission's wwweb page http://europa.eu.int/comm/ environment/ iczm/ home.htm. The various thematic studies and reports present lessons learned and principles for good governance and sustainable management of coastal areas and resources. The reports also suggest that there is a need for a strong and pro-active European ICZM Strategy and asks "how" this can best be achieved. Consideration of options for promoting ICZM is based on: Article 6 of the Amsterdam treaty regarding the integration of environment into all other policies; legal bases for other Communitie's objectives including regional cohesion, fisheries, social affairs, transport, energy and promotion of SME's; and the inter-country nature of many coastal problems. A number of limitations are imposed on what options are available. These include: the EC mandate where "subsidiarity" play a major role, and the limited financial resources available to fund ICZM initiatives imposed by the "zero growth" projections in EC budgets. Options open to the EC might include: (1) defining the framework for ICZM through a set of flexible guiding principles; (2) triggering ICZM at other administrative levels (through legal acts or conditionality for funding); (3) stimulation of ICZM through direct support for certain ICZM initiatives, including coordination of member state policies and action at regional sea level; (4) supporting ICZM through research and development of tools and methodologies; (5) Adapting individual EU sectoral policies (Environment, Regional Policy & Cohesion, Energy, Research, Agriculture, etc.). A basic issue that the EC had to consider was how best to promote the adaptation of individual EU sectoral policies to provide more integrated support for ICZM. Would it be best to do this trough through: (1) improved concepts, including integration of the ICZM concept (2) better implementation of good concepts (3) adapting policy to regional specificity / scale (4) greater clarity about the policy's application to the sea; or through improved intersectoral coordination of EU Policies through: (1) EU Interservice consultation (existing, can it be improved?) (2) EU Interservice agreements (3) Formal mechanisms / coordinating body. A question that remains is whether this coordination should be done at a national or regional level through developing a: (1) Legal instrument for ICZM action at other administrative levels ?; (2) Directive; (3) Council Resolution- A code of; or (4) Council decision. There are also a questions as to whether this instrument should be binding or voluntary, and what its contents should be. The EC asked for comments from the Community as to what exactly should the EU do and to submit ideas BEFORE recommendations were prepared. To facilitate active participation in this debate, the EC instituted a series of seminars covering all E.U. countries in which the open to the EU were presented for deliberation by Member States. Some 100 written responses were received, but the EC had reservations about how representative these were and saw limitations in respect to their being: mostly from the "converted", some administrations faced limitations in responding, there were problems of Cultural Predilection, and the knowledge base for response preparation was limited. Specific observations from the Consultation process included: (1) There was overwhelming support for EU role in providing leadership and Guidance (2) The ICZM Principles were supported, but there was a need to reinforce them in respect to link between coastal and inland processes, the importance of involving non-EU neighbours in regional seas level management, and the need for coherence between legal instruments and administrative objectives (3) Diverse opinions exist about the need for an EU legal "instrument". For example, comments were received that suggested: "...Cooperation cannot be legislated...", "...We need firm rules on limits to development in the CZ, to overcome short-term economic interests..." (4) There were also differences of opinion on whether the instrument should be Obligatory or voluntary, whether it should focus on process versus objectives, and at what level it should operate - EU or National? (5) There was also widespread emphasis on the importance of improving information, training ,and knowledge diffusion in support of ICZM. EU action was called for in the following areas: (1) Compilation & summary of consultation process (2) Agreement between Commission services (3) Proposal for "EU ICZM Strategy" proposal by the Commission (September 2000 COM/2000/547) (4) Council endorsement (end of 2000) (5) Adoption by European Parliament (May 2001) (6) Implementation of strategy (2001 and on)

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