Continuous growth of the earth population and the constantly increasing demand for the products of animal origin stimulated the intensive development of ocean fisheries in post-war time. As a result, the world catch of hydrobionts has increased from 21.1 million tons in 1950 up to 102 million tons in 1988. The tendencies of the world fishing have been also showed in the domestic fish industry which since the 50's is taking its bearing on ocean waters, mainly, of the continental shelf. In the middle of 70's, after introduction of the 200-rniles economic zones, the efforts of dornestic science have been directed at studing of the high depth objects and pelagiums of the open part of the World Ocean, in particular, of small mezopelagic fish because their stocks (according to FAO official statistics) can provide catches in scores of million tons. Mastering of the known biological resources of the World Ocean permitted to increase the catch of fish and other hydrobionts by Russia from 1.6 million tons in 1950 up to 11.4 rnillion tons in 1988. The great efforts of fishery science and industry have been required for studying and mastering of the new areas and objects of fishery. The marine research institutes (VNIRO, TINRO, AtlantNlRO, PINRO, YugNIRO) and reglonal commercial exploratory fishing have introduced in action annualy scores of the research and search vessels for complex fishery investigations. In connection with intensive development of ocean fisheries one of the problems in investigation of the fishery objects, often little known or unknown, was studying of chemical compositions and technological properties of the new fishery objects and elaboration of the recommendations for their rational utilizing. "Method of technochemical studying of fishes and invertehrates" has been elaborated by VNIRO and the other regional institutes. This method on the base of accumulated experience of work with the new fishery objects determined the single order for collection and treatment of hydrobiont specimens as well as for definition of mass and chemical compositions of fish; it also gave the list of parameters which are necessary to determine and method for such determining. This method had been following until 1981 when the new, more precisely defined "Methodical recommendations for technochemical studing of fish and invertebrates" were published. In connection with finding in the catches the fish with toxical properties the necessity in sanitary-hygienic studings has occured. Study of food value and harmlessness of the new fishery objects has been carried out hy Kiev Research Institute of Nutrition Hygiene in consideration of the public health organizations demands. By the middle of the 60's large volume of the experimental data has been accumulated. These materials had been systematized, generalized and published as the handbook ("Technochemical properties of marine fishes". M., Food Industry, 1972 ).452 species belonging to 91 families had been described in it. This handbook had been republished in Engllsh by the American-Indian Publishing Co. Twenty years have passed after publishing of the above-mentioned handbook. During this time the intensive work on study and mastering of the new fishing areas and objects in the open part of the World Ocean has been continued. It has been about to happen the necessity of generalization and systematization of information on ocean and marine fishes found in Russia fishery up to 1990 as well as of publishing of a new handhook in which such information should be presented. In this new handbook 687 species belonging to 126 families, described in the systematized order (by families, genera and species). For the sake of convenience in using of the handbook, the alphabetical indices of the fish names in English and Latin have been foreseen. The handbook consists of two parts: the first part contains the descriptions of cartilaginous fishes (sharks and skates), the second one -of bony fishes. The fish descriptions include: the contour photographs of species, the names of fishes in English and Latin, their commercial values , the areas of distribution, sire characteristics, mass proportions of individual body parts, chemical compositions of meat and other body parts, organoleptic properties of fish meat and recommendations for their uses. However, the descriptions of some little known or insufficiently studied fish do not contain all necessary information because the corresponding data are not available. The fish names in English and especially in Latin have a considerable number of synonyms. While this book compiling, the authors held those names which are found in Russian technicalliterature as well as in other handbooks.