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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary: levels, profiles, and distribution
Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Schepens, P. (2003). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary: levels, profiles, and distribution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(19): 4348-4357. hdl.handle.net/10.1021/es034503r
In: Environmental Science and Technology. American Chemical Society: Washington. ISSN 0013-936X, more
Peer reviewed article

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  • Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Schepens, P. (2005). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary: levels, profiles, and distribution, in: (2005). VLIZ Coll. Rep. 33-34(2003-2004). VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, 33-34: pp. chapter 56 [Subsequent publication], more
  • Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Schepens, P. (2006). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary: levels, profiles, and distribution, in: Voorspoels, S. (2006). Environmental distribution of brominated flame retardants in Belgium = Verspreiding van gebromeerde vlamvertragers in het Belgische milieu. pp. 99-111 [Subsequent publication], more

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Abstract
    The Western Scheldt Estuary (SE) is subjected to a variety of suspected PBDE sources, such as a brominated flame retardant manufacturing plant, the Antwerp harbor, and the textile industry located further upstream the river. The Belgian North Sea (BNS) was included in this study to analyze the influence of the SE on the levels found in biota from the BNS locations. Benthic invertebrates, such as shrimp, crab, and starfish, benthic fish, such as goby, dab, plaice, and sole, and gadoid fish, such as bib and whiting, were sampled in the BNS (nonpolluted area) and the SE (polluted area) and analyzed to determine the concentrations and spatial variation of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209). Levels found in the SE samples were up to 30 times higher than those found in BNS samples, with a gradient increasing toward Antwerp. Levels in BNS ranged from 0.02 to 1.5 ng/g ww in benthic invertebrates and goby, from 0.06 to 0.94 ng/g ww in fish muscle, and from 0.84 to 128 ng/g ww in fish liver. For the SE samples, levels ranged from 0.20 to 29.9 ng/g ww in benthic invertebrates and goby, from 0.08 to 6.9 ng/g ww in fish muscle, and from 15.0 to 984 ng/g ww in fish liver. BDE 209 could only be detected in eight liver samples from the SE and levels ranged between 3.4 and 37.2 ng/g ww. PBDE profiles of the various species at the different locations were compared. Differences in profile were attributed to different exposure and to differences in metabolism among species. Ratios between EDE 99 and 100 were found to be highly location and species dependent, which could be related to differences in metabolism. Some species, such as dab, plaice bib, and whiting, showed preferential accumulation of PBDEs in the liver. Higher brominated congeners in general showed higher affinity for liver than for muscle tissue.

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