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Heavy metal pollution in a reforested mangrove ecosystem (Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Southern Vietnam): Effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors over a thirty-year history
Costa-Böddeker, S.; Thuyên, L.X.; Hoelzmann, P.; de Stigter, H.C.; van Gaever, P.; Huy, H.D.; Smol, J.P.; Schwalb, A. (2020). Heavy metal pollution in a reforested mangrove ecosystem (Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Southern Vietnam): Effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors over a thirty-year history. Sci. Total Environ. 716: 137035. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137035
In: Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0048-9697; e-ISSN 1879-1026, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 

Author keywords
    Heavy metal enrichment; Pollution indices; Sediment quality guidelines; Multiple stressors; Land-use change

Auteurs  Top 
  • Costa-Böddeker, S.
  • Thuyên, L.X.
  • Hoelzmann, P.
  • de Stigter, H.C., meer
  • van Gaever, P., meer
  • Huy, H.D.
  • Smol, J.P.
  • Schwalb, A.

Abstract
    In order to assess the impact of recent industrialization and land-use changes in the Can Gio Mangrove Forest, a Biosphere Reserve in Southern Vietnam, we analyzed heavy metal (HM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in a 210Pb-dated sediment core, allowing for the environmental reconstruction of the last three decades. C/N ratios were very high (>20) until ~1990, reflecting highly refractory organic matter. Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG's) violations were observed particularly after the establishment of industries in the area in the late-1990s. Chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) exceeded the threshold effect levels (TEL); whereas nickel (Ni) was above the probable effects level (PEL), identifying the risk of potential adverse biological effects. Moderate contamination, mainly from cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb), was detected by the contamination factor (CF) index, with Pb levels likely originating from mainly anthropogenic sources, particularly after ~1992, as indicated by elevated enrichment factor (EF) values. A high positive correlation was found between Pb, Cr, Cu and Ni (r ≥ 0.8), while Co, cadmium (Cd) and TOC were highly positive correlated (r = 0.9). We identified evidence of point sources, atmospheric pollution and erosion as the main contributors to enhanced HM levels. However, negative values of the Geo-accumulation index (I-geo) indicated uncontaminated sediments. This discrepancy in pollution indices was likely due to the use of shale averages instead of regional levels as background values, as well as the influence of multiple stressors.

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