|The ARC-test: a standardized short-term routine toxicity test with Artemia nauplii: methodology and evaluation|
Vanhaecke, P.; Persoone, G. (1984). The ARC-test: a standardized short-term routine toxicity test with Artemia nauplii: methodology and evaluation, in: Persoone, G. et al. (Ed.) (1984). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ecotoxicological Testing for the Marine Environment, Ghent, Belgium, september 12-14, 1983: volume 2. pp. 143-157
In: Persoone, G.; Jaspers, E.; Claus, C. (Ed.) (1984). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ecotoxicological Testing for the Marine Environment, Ghent, Belgium, september 12-14, 1983: volume 2. IZWO/State University Gent: Gent. VIII, 580 pp., meer
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- Vanhaecke, P.; Persoone, G. (1985). The ARC-test: a standardized short-term routine toxicity test with Artemia nauplii: methodology and evaluation, in: (1985). IZWO Coll. Rep. 15(1985). IZWO Collected Reprints, 15: pp. chapter 16, meer
methodologie; Nauplii; Toxiciteitstesten; Artemia Leach, 1819 [WoRMS]; Marien
Considering the need for reliable standardized routine toxicity tests for the marine environment, a short-term bioassay with Artemia nauplii has been developed for routine testing. The major reason for the selection of brine shrimp as test species is the continuous availability of Artemia under the form of dry cysts from which the larvae are hatched very easily. This unique advantage solves one of the major problems of aquatic ecotoxicological tests, namely stock recruitment and/or culturing; the Artemia test can be performed anywhere and at any time from dry biological material available "on the shelf".
An extensive study has been performed on various brine shrimp tests published in scientific literature, the outcome of which has been the development of a simple and inexpensive bioassay suitable as a first screening test for the toxicity ranking of chemicals and as yardstick test for marine biota. The "Artemia Reference Center"-test (ARC-test) is a short-term, acute bioassay based on the determination of the 24h LC50 of instar II- III nauplii of a specific Artemia strain. Test procedure has been the subject of the international round robin exercises, one in Europe (sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities), the second in North America, to determine the degree of standardization of the experimental protocol proposed. From the results of these ring tests, in which 59 laboratories participated in the first exercise and eight in the second, one can conclude that, although the test was entirely new to two thirds of the participating laboratories its repeatability and reproducibility are at least equal to that of the short-term Daphnia test.