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De archeozoologische reconstructie van de ontwikkeling van de exploitatie van de zee: een stand van zaken voor Vlaanderen = The zooarchaeological reconstruction of the development of the exploitation of the sea: a status quaestionis for Flanders
Van Neer, W.; Ervynck, A. (2006). De archeozoologische reconstructie van de ontwikkeling van de exploitatie van de zee: een stand van zaken voor Vlaanderen = The zooarchaeological reconstruction of the development of the exploitation of the sea: a status quaestionis for Flanders, in: Pieters, M. et al. (Ed.) (2006). Visserij, handel en piraterij: vissers en vissersnederzettingen in en rond de Noordzee in de Middeleeuwen en later. 1: Bijdragen van het Colloquium in Oostende-Raversijde, Provinciaal Museum Walraversijde, België, 21-23 nobember 2003 = Fishery, trade and piracy: fishermen and fishermen's settlements in and around the North Sea area in the Middle Ages and later. 1: Papers from the Colloquium at Oostende-Raversijde, Provincial Museum Walraversijde, Belgium, 21-23 November 2003. Archeologie in Vlaanderen Monografie, 6: pp. 95-103
In: Pieters, M. et al. (Ed.) (2006). Visserij, handel en piraterij: vissers en vissersnederzettingen in en rond de Noordzee in de Middeleeuwen en later. 1: Bijdragen van het Colloquium in Oostende-Raversijde, Provinciaal Museum Walraversijde, België, 21-23 nobember 2003 = Fishery, trade and piracy: fishermen and fishermen's settlements in and around the North Sea area in the Middle Ages and later. 1: Papers from the Colloquium at Oostende-Raversijde, Provincial Museum Walraversijde, Belgium, 21-23 November 2003. Archeologie in Vlaanderen Monografie, 6. Vlaams Instituut voor het Onroerend Erfgoed: Brussel. 219 pp., meer
In: Archeologie in Vlaanderen Monografie. Vlaams Instituut voor het Onroerend Erfgoed: Brussel. ISSN 1370-5768, meer

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Documenttype: Congresbijdrage

Trefwoorden
    Archeologie; Biogeografie; Exploitatie; Marine resources; ANE, België [gazetteer]; ANE, Noordzee [gazetteer]; Marien

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Abstract
    The biological study of the remains of marine animals, excavated at archaeological sites, has proven to yield vital information concerning the evolution of the Flemish marine fishery, and the development of the exploitation of the sea in general. However, the information is unevenly spread over different time periods, and between producer and consumer sites. Considering the pre- and protohistoric period, hardly any data are available; the scarce evidence from a number of small faunal assemblages suggests that, during these periods, trade in marine products towards inland sites did not occur. Unfortunately, Flemish pre- and protohistoric producer sites are unknown; they disappeared into sea due to the Holocene sea level rise.
    Considering the Roman period, for the same reason, the producer sites of marine products remain equally unknown. Inland consumer sites from that period, however, do show a (limited) consumption of large marine fish, be it species not derived from the North Sea. Spanish mackerel was imported in a salted form, as salsamenta, from more southern parts of the empire. Smaller fish from southern waters was also consumed in northern Gaul, as ingredient of garum, the well-known Roman fish sauce. At some point during the Roman occupation, even a local production of garum was set up, using small fish from the North Sea. Large marine fish from northern waters was not traded inland, in contrast to marine molluscs of which we do find the remains in Gallo-Roman inland sites.
    During the middle ages, the inland consumption of marine molluscs persisted and towards the end of the first millennium AD marine fish also appeared on the inland markets. Most probably, the development and growth of urban centres provided the stimulus for the coastal area to start organising surplus catches, larger than needed for their own subsistence economy. High medieval consumption refuse from Gent shows that, first, flatfish formed the majority of traded products, but that later large gadids became also important commodities. After 1000 AD, herring became popular on the urban markets, most probably due to the growing use of floating nets. When, during the late middle ages, the practice of gutting herring on board of the ships became widespread, the economic importance of the species even increased.
    The shift in marine fish most frequently consumed reflects the transition of fishing in coastal waters (for flatfish) towards fishing in open sea (large gadids). Moreover, late medieval assemblages of marine fish show that Flemish fishermen gradually explored more northern waters, above the Dogger bank and off the North-English and Scottish coasts. This evolution, however, was abruptly ended by the political and economic troubles of the late 15th and 16th century, which meant the end of the heydays of Flemish marine fishery.

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