Biological changes

-  Primary production changes

Shifts in species composition & biodiversity

Distributions of North Sea fishes have changed markedly from 1977 to 2001
Nearly two-thirds of 36 exploited and non-exploited demersal North Sea fish species, studied from 1977 to 2001, have shown shifts in mean latitude and/or depth in response to climatic changing.

-  Impact on the microbial loop

-  Jellyfication of oceans & regime shifts

-  Invasive species