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(Notes)
(Notes)
Regel 18: Regel 18:
  
  
Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to produce other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.<ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>
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Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries form benzene to produce other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.<ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>
  
[[Anthropogenic]] releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, automobile refuelling operations, and industrial emissions.
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[[Anthropogenic]] releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental auto mobile exhaust and refuelling, tobacco smoke and industrial emissions.
  
Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly volatile and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low [[adsorption]] to sediments or soils and will rapidly be removed from them to surface and ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, in water it takes 16 days to degrade it to half of its original concentration .   
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Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly volatile and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low [[adsorption]] to sediments or soils and will be removed from them into surface or ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, while its [[half-life]] in water is 16 days.   
  
It has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]], concentrations in goldfish are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment, and is not considered to [[biomagnification|biomagnify]] though [[food chain|food chains]].
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Benzene has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]], concentrations in goldfish are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment. Therefore it is not considered likely to [[biomagnification|biomagnify]] though [[food chain|food chains]].
 
<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>
 
<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>
  
The most sensitive crustaceans start dying at concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most species tolerate concentrations above 120 mg/l, the most sensitive fish at concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate concentrations above 100 mg/l. <ref>[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33791 www.pesticideinfo.org]</ref>
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The most sensitive crustaceans experience acute toxicity at benzene concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most other crustaceans tolerate concentrations up to 120 mg/l. The most sensitive fish [[species]] die at exposure to concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate short term exposure to benzene concentrations of up to 100 mg/l. <ref>[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33791 www.pesticideinfo.org]</ref>
  
 
Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine waters is 315 µg/l.
 
Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine waters is 315 µg/l.

Versie van 27 aug 2009 om 11:10

Definition of benzene:
Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odor. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. [1]
This is the common definition for benzene, other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

Benzene
Benzene
Formula
C6H6


Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries form benzene to produce other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.[1]

Anthropogenic releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental auto mobile exhaust and refuelling, tobacco smoke and industrial emissions.

Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly volatile and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low adsorption to sediments or soils and will be removed from them into surface or ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, while its half-life in water is 16 days.

Benzene has a low tendency to bioaccumulate, concentrations in goldfish are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment. Therefore it is not considered likely to biomagnify though food chains. [2]

The most sensitive crustaceans experience acute toxicity at benzene concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most other crustaceans tolerate concentrations up to 120 mg/l. The most sensitive fish species die at exposure to concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate short term exposure to benzene concentrations of up to 100 mg/l. [3]

Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine waters is 315 µg/l. [2]


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Benzene on the ED North Database

Benzene on the Ecotox Database


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009
  2. 2,0 2,1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE
  3. www.pesticideinfo.org