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(9 tussenliggende versies door één gebruiker worden niet weergegeven)
Regel 2: Regel 2:
 
{{Definition|title=benzene
 
{{Definition|title=benzene
  
|definition= Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. <ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>}}
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|definition= Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odor. It is highly flammable and is formed by both natural processes and human activities<ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>. }}
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
Regel 9: Regel 9:
 
! bgcolor="#FF8888" | Benzene
 
! bgcolor="#FF8888" | Benzene
 
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| align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" | [[Image:Benzene.png|200px|Benzene]]  
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| align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" | [[Image:Benzene.png|150px|Benzene]]  
 
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! bgcolor="#8888FF" | Formula
 
! bgcolor="#8888FF" | Formula
Regel 17: Regel 17:
 
|}
 
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Benzene is widely used in the United States; it's one of the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries form benzene to produce other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, nylon and synthetic fibres. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke<ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>.
  
Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.<ref name="AT">[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=14 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009]</ref>
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[[Anthropogenic]] releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental auto mobile exhaust and refuelling, tobacco smoke and industrial emissions.
  
[[Anthropogenic]] releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, automobile refuelling operations, and industrial emissions.
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Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly [[volatile]] and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low [[adsorption]] to sediments or soils and will be removed from them to surface or ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, while its [[half-life]] in water is 16 days.
  
Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly volatile and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low [[adsorption]] to sediments or soils and will rapidly be removed from them to surface and ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, in water it takes 16 days to degrade it to half of its original concentration .
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Benzene has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]], concentrations in goldfishes are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment. Therefore it is not considered likely to [[biomagnification|biomagnify]] though [[food chain|food chains]]
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<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>.
  
It has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]], concentrations in goldfish are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment, and is not considered to [[biomagnification|biomagnify]] though [[food chain|food chains]].
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The most sensitive crustaceans experience acute [[toxic|toxicity]] at benzene concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most other crustaceans tolerate concentrations up to 120 mg/l. The most sensitive fish [[species]] die at exposure to concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate short exposures to benzene concentrations of up to 100 mg/l<ref>[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33791 www.pesticideinfo.org August 27 2009]</ref>.  
<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>
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The most sensitive crustaceans start dying at concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most species tolerate concentrations above 120 mg/l, the most sensitive fish at concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate concentrations above 100 mg/l. <ref>[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33791 www.pesticideinfo.org]</ref>
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Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine waters is 315 µg/l.
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<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>
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Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb (parts per billion) and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine water is 315 µg/l<ref name = atsdr>[http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE] </ref>.
 
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Regel 46: Regel 43:
 
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=152 Benzene on the ED North Database]
 
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=152 Benzene on the ED North Database]
  
[http://www.vliz.be/cgi-bin/etox2web.exe Benzene on the ecotox database]  
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[http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/ecotox/ecotox.php?action=DispChem&ChemID=152 Benzene on the Ecotox Database]  
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Versie van 2 okt 2009 om 13:59

Definition of benzene:
Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odor. It is highly flammable and is formed by both natural processes and human activities[1].
This is the common definition for benzene, other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

Benzene
Benzene
Formula
C6H6

Benzene is widely used in the United States; it's one of the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries form benzene to produce other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, nylon and synthetic fibres. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke[1].

Anthropogenic releases of benzene into the atmosphere result mainly from environmental auto mobile exhaust and refuelling, tobacco smoke and industrial emissions.

Benzene has a moderate water solubility of 1,78 g/l, but is highly volatile and can rapidly evaporate from surface waters to the atmosphere. It has a low adsorption to sediments or soils and will be removed from them to surface or ground water and the atmosphere. In the atmosphere it will be degraded within 8 days, while its half-life in water is 16 days.

Benzene has a low tendency to bioaccumulate, concentrations in goldfishes are typically only 4 times higher than those in the environment. Therefore it is not considered likely to biomagnify though food chains [2].

The most sensitive crustaceans experience acute toxicity at benzene concentrations above 3.3 mg/l although most other crustaceans tolerate concentrations up to 120 mg/l. The most sensitive fish species die at exposure to concentrations above 4.9 mg/l, although most species tolerate short exposures to benzene concentrations of up to 100 mg/l[3].

Concentrations in air typically range between 0.3 ppb (parts per billion) and 159 ppb. The highest measured concentration of benzene in marine water is 315 µg/l[2].


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Benzene on the ED North Database

Benzene on the Ecotox Database


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry 13 august 2009
  2. 2,0 2,1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2007 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR BENZENE
  3. www.pesticideinfo.org August 27 2009