Bisphenol-A: verschil tussen versies

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(Notes)
Regel 21: Regel 21:
 
mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is widely used plastic.<ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref>
 
mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is widely used plastic.<ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref>
  
In water bisphenol A is moderately soluble, 300 mg/l, and considered to have a moderate tendency to [[adsorption|adsorb]] to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day.  In water and soils it is rather stable, althoug it can readily be biodegraded. It only takes 3 to 8 days to half it's environmental concentrations by biodegradation. 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. <ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
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In water bisphenol A is moderately soluble, 300 mg/l, and considered to have a moderate tendency to [[adsorption|adsorb]] to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day.  In water and soils it is rather stable, althoug it can readily be biodegraded. It only takes 3 to 8 days to half it's environmental concentrations by biodegradation. 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. In anoxic sediments bisphenol A can be created from the degradation of [[TBBPA]]<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
  
 
Bisphenol A has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. Therefore in poses a low toxicity threat by biomagnification towards marine mammals. Acute toxicity is only obtained when mammals consume more than 33 mg of bisphenol A per kg body weigh each day.<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
 
Bisphenol A has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. Therefore in poses a low toxicity threat by biomagnification towards marine mammals. Acute toxicity is only obtained when mammals consume more than 33 mg of bisphenol A per kg body weigh each day.<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
Regel 31: Regel 31:
 
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== Environmental standards and legislation ==
 
== Environmental standards and legislation ==
  

Versie van 24 aug 2009 om 10:35

Definition of Bisphenol-A:
Bisphenol-A is also known as 4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol, at room temperature it occurs as a white powder or in flakes. [1]
This is the common definition for Bisphenol-A, other definitions can be discussed in the article


Notes

Bisphenol-A
Bisphenol-A
Formula
C15H16O2

The total amount of bisphenol-A manufactured within the EU, based upon submissions to CEFIC by the manufacturers, of 2005 was estimated at approximately 1,150,000 tonnes/year mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is widely used plastic.[2]

In water bisphenol A is moderately soluble, 300 mg/l, and considered to have a moderate tendency to adsorb to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day. In water and soils it is rather stable, althoug it can readily be biodegraded. It only takes 3 to 8 days to half it's environmental concentrations by biodegradation. 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. In anoxic sediments bisphenol A can be created from the degradation of TBBPA[1]

Bisphenol A has a low tendency to bioaccumulate. Therefore in poses a low toxicity threat by biomagnification towards marine mammals. Acute toxicity is only obtained when mammals consume more than 33 mg of bisphenol A per kg body weigh each day.[1]


Bisphenol a has been shown to exhibit endocrine disrupting effects. In gastropods concentrations bellow 100 µg/l has been shown cause reduced penis sizes in males and enhanced oocyte production in females. The latter results in an increased embryo production at low bisphenol A concentrations. This effect has even been demonstrated in some gastropod species at concentrations of only 100 ng/l. [2] It demonstrates a moderate acute toxicity towards aquatic species. Most species start dying at concentrations above 1 mg/l. [3]


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Bisphenol-A on ED North Database


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)
  2. 2,0 2,1 ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A
  3. www.pesticideinfo.org August 24 2009