Bisphenol-A: verschil tussen versies

Uit Kust Wiki
Ga naar: navigatie, zoeken
(Notes)
(12 tussenliggende revisies door dezelfde gebruiker niet weergegeven)
Regel 2: Regel 2:
 
{{Definition|title=Bisphenol-A  
 
{{Definition|title=Bisphenol-A  
  
|definition=Bisphenol-A is also known as 4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol, at room temperature it occurs as a white powder or in flakes. <ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>}}
+
|definition=Bisphenol-A is also known as 4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol. At room temperature it occurs as a white powder or in flakes<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>. }}
  
  
Regel 18: Regel 18:
 
|}
 
|}
  
The total amount of bisphenol-A manufactured within the EU, based upon submissions to CEFIC by the manufacturers, of 2005 was estimated at approximately 1,150,000 tonnes/year
+
The total amount of bisphenol-A manufactured in 2005 within the EU was estimated at approximately 1.150.000 tonnes. This large amount was mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is a widely used plastic<ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref>.
mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is widely used plastic.<ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref>
+
  
In water bisphenol A is moderately soluble, 300 mg/l, and considered to have a moderate tendency to [[adsorption|adsorb]] to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day.  In water and soils it is rather stable, althoug it can readily be biodegraded. It only takes 3 to 8 days to half it's environmental concentrations by biodegradation. 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. <ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
+
Bisphenol A is moderately soluble in water (300 mg/l), it is considered to have a moderate tendency to [[adsorption|adsorb]] to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day.  In water and soils it is chemically stable, although it can readily be biodegraded. The environmental [[half-life]] is only 3 to 8 days and a 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. In [[anoxic]] sediments bisphenol A can be created from the degradation of [[Tetrabromobisphenol A|TBBP-A]]<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>.
  
Bisphenol A has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. Therefore in poses a low toxicity threat by biomagnification towards marine mammals. Acute toxicity is only obtained when mammals consume more than 33 mg of bisphenol A per kg body weigh each day.<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>
+
Bisphenol A has a low tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. Therefore it poses a low toxicity threat by [[biomagnification]] towards marine mammals. Bisphenol A becomes lethal when mammals consume each day more than 33 mg of it per kg of body weight<ref name="en">[http://ecb.jrc.it/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/ADDENDUM/bisphenola_add_325.pdf February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)]</ref>.
  
+
Bisphenol A exhibits [[endocrine disrupting compounds|endocrine disrupting effects]]. In [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=101 gastropods] concentrations bellow 100 µg/l have been shown to cause reduced penis sizes in males and enhanced oocyte production in females. The latter results in an increased embryo production at low bisphenol A concentrations. This effect has even been demonstrated in some gastropod [[species]] at concentrations of only 100 ng/l<ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref>It demonstrates a moderate acute [[toxic|toxicity]] towards aquatic species as most species tolerate short exposure to concentrations of 1 mg/l<ref name="pe">[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33756#Related_Chems www.pesticideinfo.org August 24 2009]</ref>.
Bisphenol a has been shown to exhibit [[endocrine disrupting compounds|endocrine disrupting effects]]. In [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=101 gastropods] concentrations bellow 100 µg/l has been shown cause reduced penis sizes in males and enhanced oocyte production in females. The latter results in an increased embryo production at low bisphenol A concentrations. This effect has even been demonstrated in some gastropod species at concentrations of only 100 ng/l. <ref name="echa">[http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/4_4_isopropylidene_diphenol_bisphenol_a/ann_xv_trd/trd_uk_bisphenol_a.pdf ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A]</ref> It demonstrates a moderate acute toxicity towards aquatic species. Most species start dying at concentrations above 1 mg/l. <ref name="pe">[http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33756#Related_Chems www.pesticideinfo.org august 24]</ref>  
+
  
 
<P>
 
<P>
 
<BR>
 
<BR>
 
<P>
 
<P>
 +
 
== Environmental standards and legislation ==
 
== Environmental standards and legislation ==
  
Regel 39: Regel 38:
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=157 Bisphenol-A on ED North Database]
+
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=157 Bisphenol-A on the ED North Database]
 +
 
 +
[http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/ecotox/ecotox.php?action=DispChem&ChemID=157 Bisphenol-A on the Ecotox Database]
 
<P>
 
<P>
 
<BR>
 
<BR>
 
<P>
 
<P>
 +
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
 
[[Category:Coastal and marine pollution]]
 
[[Category:Coastal and marine pollution]]

Versie van 2 okt 2009 om 13:12

Definition of Bisphenol-A:
Bisphenol-A is also known as 4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol. At room temperature it occurs as a white powder or in flakes[1].
This is the common definition for Bisphenol-A, other definitions can be discussed in the article


Notes

Bisphenol-A
Bisphenol-A
Formula
C15H16O2

The total amount of bisphenol-A manufactured in 2005 within the EU was estimated at approximately 1.150.000 tonnes. This large amount was mainly produced to manufacture polycarbonate, witch is a widely used plastic[2].

Bisphenol A is moderately soluble in water (300 mg/l), it is considered to have a moderate tendency to adsorb to suspended particles and sediments. It has a very low tendency to evaporate into the atmosphere where most of it will be degraded in less than a day. In water and soils it is chemically stable, although it can readily be biodegraded. The environmental half-life is only 3 to 8 days and a 100% removal of environmental contamination can occur within 17 days. In anoxic sediments bisphenol A can be created from the degradation of TBBP-A[1].

Bisphenol A has a low tendency to bioaccumulate. Therefore it poses a low toxicity threat by biomagnification towards marine mammals. Bisphenol A becomes lethal when mammals consume each day more than 33 mg of it per kg of body weight[1].

Bisphenol A exhibits endocrine disrupting effects. In gastropods concentrations bellow 100 µg/l have been shown to cause reduced penis sizes in males and enhanced oocyte production in females. The latter results in an increased embryo production at low bisphenol A concentrations. This effect has even been demonstrated in some gastropod species at concentrations of only 100 ng/l[2]. It demonstrates a moderate acute toxicity towards aquatic species as most species tolerate short exposure to concentrations of 1 mg/l[3].


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Bisphenol-A on the ED North Database

Bisphenol-A on the Ecotox Database


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 February 2008 Updated European Risk Assessment Report 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A)
  2. 2,0 2,1 ECHA 2008 ANNEX XV RESTRICTION REPORT Bisphenol-A
  3. www.pesticideinfo.org August 24 2009