Cadmium: verschil tussen versies

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(Notes)
(20 tussenliggende revisies door dezelfde gebruiker niet weergegeven)
Regel 3: Regel 3:
 
Definition|title= cadmium
 
Definition|title= cadmium
  
|definition=Cadmium is a [[heavy metals|heavy metal]] with symbol Cd and atomic number 48 <ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium</ref>}}
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|definition=Cadmium is a [[heavy metals|heavy metal]] with symbol Cd and atomic number 48<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium</ref>.}}
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
Regel 11: Regel 11:
 
</div>]]
 
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The main [[anthropogenic]] sources are [[copper]] and [[zinc]] smelting, batteries and fuel combustion. It mostly enters the marine ecosystem through atmospheric loading and riverine discharges.<ref name = t> Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>
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The main [[anthropogenic]] sources are [[copper]] and [[zinc]] smelting, batteries and fuel combustion. It mostly enters the marine ecosystem through atmospheric loading and riverine discharges<ref name = t> Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>.
 
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Cadmium is regarded as one of the most toxic metals. It causes sublethal and behavioral effects at lower concentrations than mercury and lead. It causes cancer in animals, and in vertebrates it causes kidney toxicity. <ref name = bird>Biology of marine birds. Schreiber, E.A. & Burger, J. (Eds). 2002. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 722 pp. </ref> In humans it might also lead to skeletal deficiencies and lung damage. <ref>eds.J. Vos, G. Bossart, M. Fournier, and T. O'Shea, 2004;  New perspectives: Toxicology and the environment. Toxicology of marine mammals, New York: Taylor & Francis. 643p</ref> Environmental concentrations of 5µg/l have affected the reproduction of copepods, decreased the abundance of isopods and depressed the growth of juvenile plaice. Laboratory LC<sub>50</sub> (the concentration at which 50% of the test subjects die) toxic levels for copepods were higher than 0,34mg/l. <ref name = t> Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>
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Like other heavy metals, cadmium does not have [[biomagnification|biomagnifying]] properties. Higher trophic levels accumulate low amounts of cadmium and are able to deal with them efficiently with [[metallothionein|metallothioneins]]. Mollusks contain large amounts of cadmium and seem to [[bioaccumulation|accumulate]] them.<ref>Clark, R,B., 1999. Marine pollution. Oxford University press, Fourth edition, pp 161</ref>
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== Environmental standards and legislation ==
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===Environmental standards===
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<u>'''water framework directive'''</u> 
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Annual average concentration in marine surface waters: 0,2 µg/l
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Maximum allowable concentration in marine surface waters: 0,45 µg/l. However, allowable concentrations may rise up to 1,5 µg/l in areas with a lot of dissolved CaCO<sub>3</sub>.
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<u>'''OSPAR convention'''</u>
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===legislation===
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[[OSPAR list of priority substances]]
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[http://www.ospar.org/documents%5Cdbase%5Cpublications%5Cp00151_Background%20document%20on%20Cadmium.pdf OSPAR background document on Cadmium]
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[[Water framework list of priority substances]]
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Cadmium is regarded as one of the most [[toxic]] metals. It causes sublethal and behavioral effects at lower concentrations than mercury and lead. It's cancerogenic and causes kidney toxicity in vertebrates<ref name = bird>Biology of marine birds. Schreiber, E.A. & Burger, J. (Eds). 2002. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 722 pp. </ref>.  In humans it might also lead to skeletal deficiencies and lung damage<ref>eds.J. Vos, G. Bossart, M. Fournier, and T. O'Shea, 2004;  New perspectives: Toxicology and the environment. Toxicology of marine mammals, New York: Taylor & Francis. 643p</ref>.  Environmental concentrations of 5µg/l have affected the reproduction of copepods, decreased the abundance of isopods and depressed the growth of juvenile plaice. Laboratory LC<sub>50</sub> (the concentration at which 50% of the test subjects die) toxic levels for copepods were above 0,34mg/l<ref name = t> Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>.
  
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Like other heavy metals, cadmium does not have [[biomagnification|biomagnifying]] properties. Higher trophic levels accumulate low amounts of cadmium and are able to deal with them efficiently with [[metallothionein|metallothioneins]]. Mollusks contain large amounts of cadmium and seem to [[bioaccumulation|accumulate]] them<ref>Clark, R,B., 1999. Marine pollution. Oxford University press, Fourth edition, pp 161</ref>.
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== Case studies ==
 
== Case studies ==
Regel 51: Regel 31:
  
 
[[Heavy metals in various Belgian benthic invertebrates]]
 
[[Heavy metals in various Belgian benthic invertebrates]]
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== Environmental standards and legislation ==
  
  
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[[OSPAR List of priority substances|Included in the OSPAR list of substances of priority action]]
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[[List of priority substances|Included in the water framework list of priority substances]]
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<BR>
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
 
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=323 Cadmium on the ED North Database]  
 
[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=323 Cadmium on the ED North Database]  
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[http://www.ospar.org/documents%5Cdbase%5Cpublications%5Cp00151_Background%20document%20on%20Cadmium.pdf OSPAR background document on cadmium]
  
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
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[[Category:Coastal and marine pollution]]

Versie van 2 okt 2009 om 13:31

Definition of cadmium:
Cadmium is a heavy metal with symbol Cd and atomic number 48[1].
This is the common definition for cadmium, other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

Cadmium © Greg Robson

The main anthropogenic sources are copper and zinc smelting, batteries and fuel combustion. It mostly enters the marine ecosystem through atmospheric loading and riverine discharges[2].

Cadmium is regarded as one of the most toxic metals. It causes sublethal and behavioral effects at lower concentrations than mercury and lead. It's cancerogenic and causes kidney toxicity in vertebrates[3]. In humans it might also lead to skeletal deficiencies and lung damage[4]. Environmental concentrations of 5µg/l have affected the reproduction of copepods, decreased the abundance of isopods and depressed the growth of juvenile plaice. Laboratory LC50 (the concentration at which 50% of the test subjects die) toxic levels for copepods were above 0,34mg/l[2].

Like other heavy metals, cadmium does not have biomagnifying properties. Higher trophic levels accumulate low amounts of cadmium and are able to deal with them efficiently with metallothioneins. Mollusks contain large amounts of cadmium and seem to accumulate them[5].


Case studies

PCB and heavy metals in beached sperm whales

Heavy metal content of mussels in the Western Scheldt estuary

Common starfish can act as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution

Effects of heavy metals on the sperm quality and the larvae survival of sea urchins

Heavy metals in various Belgian benthic invertebrates


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the OSPAR list of substances of priority action

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Cadmium on the ED North Database

OSPAR background document on cadmium


References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium
  2. 2,0 2,1 Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp
  3. Biology of marine birds. Schreiber, E.A. & Burger, J. (Eds). 2002. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 722 pp.
  4. eds.J. Vos, G. Bossart, M. Fournier, and T. O'Shea, 2004; New perspectives: Toxicology and the environment. Toxicology of marine mammals, New York: Taylor & Francis. 643p
  5. Clark, R,B., 1999. Marine pollution. Oxford University press, Fourth edition, pp 161