Definition of copper:
Copper is a heavy metal
with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29
. It is very ductile and malleable
This is the common definition for copper, other definitions can be discussed in the article
The bucktail creek- turquoise color is copper precipitate on rocks © Iadanza, NOAA, 1996
Important anthropogenic inputs of copper into the ocean include urban sewage sludge dumping, runoff from copper mines and antifouling paints .
Copper is an essential element for animals, especially decapods, gastropods and cephalopods need copper in their respiratory pigment hemocyanin. Hemocyanin is a protein which (like hemoglobin) binds oxygen to transport it to the tissues.
Copper is however also one of the most toxic metals to a wide spectrum of marine life . Copper concentrations between 1 and 10µg/l can seriously affect a large number of marine organisms. These concentrations have lethal effects on scallops, clams and isopods, while other species are protected by copper binding metallothioneins .
Oysters appear to accumulate large amounts of copper in their leucocytes (a type of blood cel), where they do little harm. Copper, like most other metals, doesn't show biomagnifying characteristics.
The relation between pollutants and disease in guillemots
Heavy metal content of mussels in the Western Scheldt estuary
Effects of copper-based antifouling paints on brine shrimp
Effects of heavy metals on the sperm quality and the larvae survival of sea urchins
Heavy metals in various Belgian benthic invertebrates
Copper on the ED North Database
Copper(I)chloride on the Ecotox Database
Copper(II)oxide on the Ecotox Database
- ↑ www.wikipedia.org July 31 2009
- ↑ http://glossary.eea.europa.eu/terminology/concept_html?term=copper
- ↑ 3,0 3,1 Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp
- ↑ Clark, R,B., 1999. Marine pollution. Oxford University press, Fourth edition, pp 161