DDT: verschil tussen versies

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===  ===
Definition|title= dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane  
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{{Definition|title= dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane  
|definition= dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a persistant [[organochlorine pesticides|organochlorine pesticide]] <ref>Lawrence E (ed.), 2000. Henderson’s Dictionary of Biological Terms. 12th edition. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Limited. Harlow, Great Britain.</ref> }}
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|definition= Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a [[persistent]] [[organochlorine pesticides|organochlorine pesticide]]<ref>Lawrence E (ed.), 2000. Henderson’s Dictionary of Biological Terms. 12th edition. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Limited. Harlow, Great Britain.</ref>. }}
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== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
  
DDT, like other organochlorine pesticides enter the marine environment mainly through inputs from water and air as a result of their use in agriculture. Although the use of DDT has been forbidden since the 1970's, they are still detected in the marine environment due to it's extreme stability, to illegal use or to use elsewhere (third world countries).
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{| class="toccolours" border="1" style="float: right; clear: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; border-collapse: collapse;"
DDT is metabolized into dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) which is equally toxic. Therefore, to asses the risk of DDT exposure, the sum both contaminants needs to be taken into account. This means that if you encounter a high percentage of DDT, the contamination must be a recent one.<ref>OSPAR Commission 2000. Quality Status Report 2000, OSPAR Commission, London</ref>. It's still possible to find recent contaminations of DDT, especially by use in third world countries, where use still isn't everywhere prohibited.<ref name="pub">Janssen, C. (2008). Wat is giftig en wat niet, de zee onder de loep. Het Laboratorium voor Milieutoxicologie en Aquatische Ecologie, in: Goffin, A. et al. (Ed.) (2008). UGent aan Zee. pp. 54-61</ref>
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! bgcolor="#FF8888" | DDT
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| align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" | [[Image:DDT.jpg|200px|DDT]]
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! bgcolor="#8888FF" | Formula
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| align="center" | C<sub>14</sub>H<sub>9</sub>C<sub>15</sub>
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DDT, like other organochlorine pesticides enter the marine environment mainly through inputs from water and air, as a result of their use in agriculture. Although the use of DDT in Western countries has been forbidden since the 1970's, they are still detected in the marine environment due to it's extreme stability ([[half-life]] of 15 years), to illegal use or to use elsewhere (third world countries).
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DDT is metabolised into dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) which is equally toxic. Therefore, to asses the risk of DDT exposure, the sum both contaminants needs to be taken into account. This also means that when you encounter a high DDT/DDE ratio, the contamination must be a recent one<ref>OSPAR Commission 2000. Quality Status Report 2000, OSPAR Commission, London</ref>.  
  
DDT affects the central nervous system of insects and other animals. This results in hyperactivity, paralysis and death.
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DDT affects the central nervous system of insects and other animals. This results in hyperactivity, paralysis and death. DDT also affects eggshell production in birds and the [[endocrine system]] of most animals<ref>Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>.
DDT also affects eggshell production in birds and the [[endocrine system]] of most animals. <ref>Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp</ref>
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DDT has a very high tenancy towards [[biomagnification]]. When in a simple ecosystem the background concentration is equal to 1, then zooplankton can accumulate concentrations of 13.000, small fish species concentrations of 170.000, large fishes up to 670.000 and finally birds will accumulate concentrations up to 8.300.000<ref name="pub">Janssen, C. (2008). Wat is giftig en wat niet, de zee onder de loep. Het Laboratorium voor Milieutoxicologie en Aquatische Ecologie, in: Goffin, A. et al. (Ed.) (2008). UGent aan Zee. pp. 54-61</ref>. DDT has been found in all marine ecosystems, including the Antarctic and the deep sea. It can be found in all components of the marine [[food web]].
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<P>DDT has a very high tenancy towards [[biomagnification]]. When in a simple ecosystem the background concentration is equal to 1, then zooplancton can accumulate concentrations of 13.000, small fish species concentrations of 170.000, large fishes up to 670.000 and finally birds will accumulate concentrations up to 8.300.000. <ref name="pub">Janssen, C. (2008). Wat is giftig en wat niet, de zee onder de loep. Het Laboratorium voor Milieutoxicologie en Aquatische Ecologie, in: Goffin, A. et al. (Ed.) (2008). UGent aan Zee. pp. 54-61</ref> DDT has been found in all marine ecosystems, including the antarctic and the deep sea. It can be found in all components of the marine [[food web]].
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== Case studies ==
 
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== See also ==
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[[PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic algae]]<P>
 
[[PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic algae]]<P>
 
[[PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in shrimp from the Belgian North Sea]]<P>
 
[[PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in shrimp from the Belgian North Sea]]<P>
 
[[Pesticides in harbour porpoises]]
 
[[Pesticides in harbour porpoises]]
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== See also ==
  
==Refernces==
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[http://www.vliz.be/projects/endis/EDnorth.php?showchemprop=true&showeffects=true&chemeffects=true&chemid=240 DDT on the ED North Database]
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==References==
 
<references/>
 
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[[Category:Coastal and marine pollution]]

Versie van 2 okt 2009 om 14:42

Definition of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane:
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a persistent organochlorine pesticide[1].
This is the common definition for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

DDT
DDT
Formula
C14H9C15

DDT, like other organochlorine pesticides enter the marine environment mainly through inputs from water and air, as a result of their use in agriculture. Although the use of DDT in Western countries has been forbidden since the 1970's, they are still detected in the marine environment due to it's extreme stability (half-life of 15 years), to illegal use or to use elsewhere (third world countries). DDT is metabolised into dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) which is equally toxic. Therefore, to asses the risk of DDT exposure, the sum both contaminants needs to be taken into account. This also means that when you encounter a high DDT/DDE ratio, the contamination must be a recent one[2].

DDT affects the central nervous system of insects and other animals. This results in hyperactivity, paralysis and death. DDT also affects eggshell production in birds and the endocrine system of most animals[3].

DDT has a very high tenancy towards biomagnification. When in a simple ecosystem the background concentration is equal to 1, then zooplankton can accumulate concentrations of 13.000, small fish species concentrations of 170.000, large fishes up to 670.000 and finally birds will accumulate concentrations up to 8.300.000[4]. DDT has been found in all marine ecosystems, including the Antarctic and the deep sea. It can be found in all components of the marine food web.


Case studies

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic algae

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in shrimp from the Belgian North Sea

Pesticides in harbour porpoises


See also

DDT on the ED North Database


References

  1. Lawrence E (ed.), 2000. Henderson’s Dictionary of Biological Terms. 12th edition. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Limited. Harlow, Great Britain.
  2. OSPAR Commission 2000. Quality Status Report 2000, OSPAR Commission, London
  3. Kennish, M. J. (1996): Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, CRC Press 524 pp
  4. Janssen, C. (2008). Wat is giftig en wat niet, de zee onder de loep. Het Laboratorium voor Milieutoxicologie en Aquatische Ecologie, in: Goffin, A. et al. (Ed.) (2008). UGent aan Zee. pp. 54-61