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Diethylhexylphthalate: verschil tussen versies

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(Notes)
Regel 12: Regel 12:
 
DEHP has a tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. It mainly accumulates through direct uptake from the water and not by food intake. Therefore, there is little risk for [[biomagnification]] through [[food chain|food chains]] and the same concentrations can be found in zooplankton as in fish. There might however be risks for [[pollution and sea birds|sea birds]] and [[pollution and marine mammals|marine mammals]] which eat large amounts of mollusks, crustaceans or krill.  
 
DEHP has a tendency to [[bioaccumulation|bioaccumulate]]. It mainly accumulates through direct uptake from the water and not by food intake. Therefore, there is little risk for [[biomagnification]] through [[food chain|food chains]] and the same concentrations can be found in zooplankton as in fish. There might however be risks for [[pollution and sea birds|sea birds]] and [[pollution and marine mammals|marine mammals]] which eat large amounts of mollusks, crustaceans or krill.  
 
   
 
   
Concentrations above 0,1 mg/l are necessary to cause acute toxicity in algae, invertebrates and fish. Long term exposure to concentrations above 3 µg/l might already cause [[endocrine disrupting compounds|endocrine disrupting effects]] in fish. Concentrations as low as 0,01 µg/l might alter the population sex ratio. DEHP might display an anti-estrogenic activity leading to a reduced [[vitellogenin]] content in females and other detrimental effects. It has also been shown to have an anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in rats.  
+
Concentrations above 0,1 mg/l are necessary to cause acute toxicity in algae, invertebrates and fish. Long term exposure to concentrations above 3 µg/l might already cause [[endocrine disrupting compounds|endocrine disrupting effects]] in fish. Concentrations as low as 0,01 µg/l might alter the population sex ratio. DEHP might display an anti-estrogenic activity leading to a reduced [[Vitellogenins|vitellogenin]] content in females and other detrimental effects. It has also been shown to have an anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in rats.  
  
 
Concentrations measured in [[estuary|estuaries]] usually between 0,05 µg/l and 2µg/l. Which are concentrations which might already pose problems for certain marine organisms. Concentrations in the sediments of estuaries and [[fjord|fjords]] are between 0,0116 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg [[dry weight]]. <ref name = OECD>[http://www.ospar.org/documents%5Cdbase%5Cpublications%5CP00270_BD%20on%20phthalates%20_2006%20version_.pdf OSPAR Commission, 2006: OSPAR background document on phthalates]</ref>
 
Concentrations measured in [[estuary|estuaries]] usually between 0,05 µg/l and 2µg/l. Which are concentrations which might already pose problems for certain marine organisms. Concentrations in the sediments of estuaries and [[fjord|fjords]] are between 0,0116 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg [[dry weight]]. <ref name = OECD>[http://www.ospar.org/documents%5Cdbase%5Cpublications%5CP00270_BD%20on%20phthalates%20_2006%20version_.pdf OSPAR Commission, 2006: OSPAR background document on phthalates]</ref>

Versie van 10 aug 2009 om 10:53

Definition of diethylhexylphthalate(DEHP):
Diethylhexylphthalate belongs to the family of phthalates: industrial chemicals used as plasticizers, softeners, adhesives or solvents used by a variety of industries. They are used in PVC, paints, printing inks, cosmetics, coatings of cars,... [1]
This is the common definition for diethylhexylphthalate(DEHP), other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

In 1997, 476.000 tonnes of DEHP was used in the EU. Due to these large quantities large amounts of DEHP are spread in the environment. DEHP is found in all environmental compartments, including remote areas. It mainly enters the marine environment through waste water from production sites, and through leakage from end products.[1]

DEHP has a low water solubility (0,003 mg/l), a very low tendency to vaporize and a high adsorption rate to particles. DEHP is a very stable chemical, it takes 2000 years to degrade it by inorganic mechanisms. It can however more easily be biodegraded. In areas with a high amount of biomass, the DEHP level can be halved in 50 days. Therefore, DEHP is not considered a persistent chemical.

DEHP has a tendency to bioaccumulate. It mainly accumulates through direct uptake from the water and not by food intake. Therefore, there is little risk for biomagnification through food chains and the same concentrations can be found in zooplankton as in fish. There might however be risks for sea birds and marine mammals which eat large amounts of mollusks, crustaceans or krill.

Concentrations above 0,1 mg/l are necessary to cause acute toxicity in algae, invertebrates and fish. Long term exposure to concentrations above 3 µg/l might already cause endocrine disrupting effects in fish. Concentrations as low as 0,01 µg/l might alter the population sex ratio. DEHP might display an anti-estrogenic activity leading to a reduced vitellogenin content in females and other detrimental effects. It has also been shown to have an anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in rats.

Concentrations measured in estuaries usually between 0,05 µg/l and 2µg/l. Which are concentrations which might already pose problems for certain marine organisms. Concentrations in the sediments of estuaries and fjords are between 0,0116 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg dry weight. [1]


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the OSPAR list of substances of priority action


See also

OSPAR background document on phthalates


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 OSPAR Commission, 2006: OSPAR background document on phthalates