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What causes eutrophication?: verschil tussen versies

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===Introduction===
 
===Introduction===
 
The main causes of eutrophication are''' an increase in the concentration of nutrients'''
 
in an ecosystem. A distinction is sometimes made between 'natural'
 
and 'cultural' ([[anthropogenic]]) eutrophication processes.
 
'''Natural eutrophication''' has been occurring for millennia.
 
It is the process of addition of [[nutrients]] to water bodies
 
, including lakes, rivers, estuaries
 
and oceans resulting in changes to the primary production
 
and species composition of the community.
 
This process occurs over extended periods of time that are typically geological time scales.
 
'''Cultural eutrophication''' is the process that speeds up
 
natural eutrophication because of human activity.
 
These activities come from many diverse sources including agriculture, [[aquaculture]],
 
septic tanks, urban wastewater, urban stormwater runoff, industry, and fossil fuel combustion.
 
Nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates enter aquatic ecosystems
 
via the air, surface water, or groundwater.
 
 
 
  
 
[[Image:Fertilizerrunoff.jpg|thumb|left|100px|<small>Fertilizer runoff</small>]]
 
[[Image:Fertilizerrunoff.jpg|thumb|left|100px|<small>Fertilizer runoff</small>]]
 
[[Image:Untreatedsewage.jpg|thumb|center|100px|<small>Untreated sewage inflow</small>]]
 
[[Image:Untreatedsewage.jpg|thumb|center|100px|<small>Untreated sewage inflow</small>]]
 
[[Image:Treatedsewage.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Treated sewage inflow</small>]]
 
[[Image:Treatedsewage.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Treated sewage inflow</small>]]
 +
 +
The main causes of eutrophication are''' an increase in the concentration of nutrients'''in an ecosystem. A distinction is sometimes made between 'natural' and 'cultural' ([[anthropogenic]]) eutrophication processes.
 +
'''Natural eutrophication''' has been occurring for millennia. It is the process of addition of [[nutrients]] to water bodies, including lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans resulting in changes to the primary production and species composition of the community. This process occurs over extended periods of time that are typically geological time scales. '''Cultural eutrophication''' is the process that speeds up natural eutrophication because of human activity.
 +
These activities come from many diverse sources including agriculture, [[aquaculture]], septic tanks, urban wastewater, urban stormwater runoff, industry, and fossil fuel combustion. Nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates enter aquatic ecosystems via the air, surface water, or groundwater.
 +
 
[[Image:Fossilrunoff.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Combustion of fossil fuels</small>]]
 
[[Image:Fossilrunoff.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Combustion of fossil fuels</small>]]
 
[[Image:Detergent.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Detergent inflow</small>]]
 
[[Image:Detergent.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Detergent inflow</small>]]
Regel 27: Regel 14:
 
[[Image:Naturalrunoff.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Natural runoff</small>]]
 
[[Image:Naturalrunoff.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Natural runoff</small>]]
 
[[Image:watererosion.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Runoff and erosion</small>]]
 
[[Image:watererosion.jpg|thumb|right|100px|<small>Runoff and erosion</small>]]
 +
 +
 +
  
 
===Trophic status===
 
===Trophic status===

Versie van 24 okt 2012 om 10:56

Introduction

File:Fertilizerrunoff.jpg
Fertilizer runoff
File:Untreatedsewage.jpg
Untreated sewage inflow
File:Treatedsewage.jpg
Treated sewage inflow

The main causes of eutrophication are an increase in the concentration of nutrientsin an ecosystem. A distinction is sometimes made between 'natural' and 'cultural' (anthropogenic) eutrophication processes. Natural eutrophication has been occurring for millennia. It is the process of addition of nutrients to water bodies, including lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans resulting in changes to the primary production and species composition of the community. This process occurs over extended periods of time that are typically geological time scales. Cultural eutrophication is the process that speeds up natural eutrophication because of human activity. These activities come from many diverse sources including agriculture, aquaculture, septic tanks, urban wastewater, urban stormwater runoff, industry, and fossil fuel combustion. Nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates enter aquatic ecosystems via the air, surface water, or groundwater.

File:Fossilrunoff.jpg
Combustion of fossil fuels
File:Detergent.jpg
Detergent inflow
File:Manure.jpg
Manure runoff
File:Naturalrunoff.jpg
Natural runoff
File:Watererosion.jpg
Runoff and erosion



Trophic status

The stage at which the process of eutrophication is at any given time in a particular water body is useful to describe the status of the water body. The following terms are used:

Oligotrophic

Low in nutrients and not productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life.

Mesotrophic

Intermediate levels of nutrients, fairly productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life and showing emerging signs of water quality problems

Eutrophic

Rich in nutrients, very productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life and showing increasing signs of water quality problems

Hypertrophic

Very high nutrient concentrations where plant growth is determined by physical factors. Water quality problems are serious and almost continuous.

References

Walmsley RD, 2000. A Review and Discussion Document. Perspectives on Eutrophication of Surface Waters: Policy/Research Needs in South Africa. Water Research Commission. Project K8/360