NARMS taxon details

Kinorhyncha

101060  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:101060)

Reinhard, 1885
accepted
Phylum
Class Allomalorhagida
Class Cyclorhagida

Order Homalorhagida accepted as Allomalorhagida (new combination)
marine, brackish
Reinhard, W. (1885). Kinorhyncha (Echinoderes), leur structure anatomique et leur place dans le système. <em>Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes à l'Université Impériale de Kharkow.</em> 19: 205-305, pls. VIII-XII. [in Russian]. [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Neuhaus, B. (2020). World List of Kinorhyncha. Kinorhyncha. Accessed through: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2020) European Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marbef.org/data/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=101060 on 2020-12-05
Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2020). European Register of Marine Species. Kinorhyncha. Accessed at: http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/narms/narms.php?p=taxdetails&id=101060 on 2020-12-05
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2020-01-20 13:40:57Z
changed
db_admin
2020-04-23 13:20:19Z
changed
2020-04-28 09:40:58Z
changed

original description Reinhard, W. (1885). Kinorhyncha (Echinoderes), leur structure anatomique et leur place dans le système. <em>Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes à l'Université Impériale de Kharkow.</em> 19: 205-305, pls. VIII-XII. [in Russian]. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

taxonomy source Reinhard, W. (1887). Kinorhyncha (Echinoderes), ihr anatomischer Bau und ihre Stellung im System. <em>Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie.</em> 45: 401-467, pls. XX-XXII.
note: Reinhard (1887) represented the German translation of the Russian article of Reinhard (1885). Unfortunately, Reinhard (1887) made only in the title a single, a bit cryptic reference to his earlies stu...  
Reinhard (1887) represented the German translation of the Russian article of Reinhard (1885). Unfortunately, Reinhard (1887) made only in the title a single, a bit cryptic reference to his earlies study from 1885 in Russian, which is the taxonomically relevant article. Therefore, Reinhard (1885) seemed to have escaped the attention of the scientific community for a long time (see also Neuhaus 2013, p. 273).
 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

taxonomy source Sørensen, M. V. (2013). Phylum Kinorhyncha. <em>In</em>: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703, 1-82. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 3703(1): 63-66., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.13
note: Outline of classification of Kinorhyncha with orders, families, and genera as well as species numbers of each genus. [details]   

taxonomy source Telford, M. J.; Bourlat, S. J.; Economou, A.; Papillon, D.; Rota-Stabelli, O. (2008). The evolution of the Ecdysozoa. <em>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.</em> 363: 1529-1537., available online at https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2243
note: Abstract (shortened): Ecdysozoa is a clade composed of arthropods, tardigrades, onychophorans, nematodes, nematomorphs, priapulids, kinorhynchs and loriciferans. The monophyly of the clade has been ca...  
Abstract (shortened): Ecdysozoa is a clade composed of arthropods, tardigrades, onychophorans, nematodes, nematomorphs, priapulids, kinorhynchs and loriciferans. The monophyly of the clade has been called into question by some workers based on analyses of whole genome datasets. We review the evidence that now conclusively supports the unique origin of these phyla. Relationships within Ecdysozoa are also controversial and we discuss the molecular and morphological evidence for a number of monophyletic groups within this superphylum.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

taxonomy source Chitwood, B G. (1959). The classification of the phylum Kinorhyncha (Reinhard, 1887) Pearse, 1936. <em>Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Zoology, London, 16-23 July 1958, Hewer, H. R., & Riley, N. D. (eds), XVth International Congress of Zoology at the Rooms of the Linnean Society of London.</em> 941-943.
note: The article provides a classification of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

taxonomy source Adrianov, A. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (1999). Cephalorhyncha of the world ocean. <em>KMK Scientific Press, Moscow.</em> 328 pp. [in Russian and English].
note: The book reviews the research history, anatomy, postembryonic development, biogeography, phylogeny, and systematics at species level of Priapulida, Loricifera, Nematomorpha, and Kinorhyncha in Russian...  
The book reviews the research history, anatomy, postembryonic development, biogeography, phylogeny, and systematics at species level of Priapulida, Loricifera, Nematomorpha, and Kinorhyncha in Russian and the latter taxon also in English. Identification keys at species level are provided. All species are briefly treated and illustrated, 13 new species are described.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

taxonomy source Sørensen, M. V.; Dal Zotto, M.; Rho, H. S.; Herranz, M.; Sánchez, N.; Pardos, F.; Yamasaki, H. (2015). Phylogeny of Kinorhyncha based on morphology and two molecular loci. <em>PLOS ONE.</em> 10(7): e0133440, 33 pp., available online at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133440 [details]   

basis of record Neuhaus, B.; van der Land, J. (2001). Cephalorhyncha (=Loricifera, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Nematomorpha), <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 159-160 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Greeff, R. (1869). Untersuchungen über einige merkwürdige Thiergruppen des Arthropoden- und Wurm-Typus. <em>Archiv für Naturgeschichte.</em> 35(1): 71-121., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7058414
note: article covers history, morphology, ecology and phylogeny of Kinorhyncha [details]   

additional source van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). , available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/urmo/ [details]   

additional source Zelinka, C. (1908). Zur Anatomie der Echinoderen. <em>Zoologischer Anzeiger.</em> 33 (19/20): 629-647.
note: The article reports about kinorhynch morphology with an intensive discussion of Schepotieff (1908). The author also introduces inadvertently Centropsis parallela, Pycnophyes communis, P. flaveolata, a...  
The article reports about kinorhynch morphology with an intensive discussion of Schepotieff (1908). The author also introduces inadvertently Centropsis parallela, Pycnophyes communis, P. flaveolata, and Trachyemus giganteus as new species.
 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Zelinka, K. (1928). Monographie der Echinodera. <em>Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.</em> 1-396, plates I-XXVII.
note: The book covers almost all aspects of Kinorhyncha, including morphology, reproduction, postembryonic development, phylogeny, parasites, ecology, distribution, and taxonomy. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Neuhaus, B. (2013). 5. Kinorhyncha (= Echinodera). In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (Ed.), Handbook of Zoology, Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera, Volume 1: Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin,. pp. 181-348. (look up in IMIS), available online at https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110272536.181
note: The book chapter reviews all known aspects of Kinorhyncha like research history, taxonomy, phylogeny, morphology, anatomy, reproduction, locomotion, ecology, development, biogeography, epifauna, and p...  
The book chapter reviews all known aspects of Kinorhyncha like research history, taxonomy, phylogeny, morphology, anatomy, reproduction, locomotion, ecology, development, biogeography, epifauna, and parasites.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Schepotieff, A. (1907). Die Echinoderiden. <em>Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie.</em> 88(2): 291-326, pls. XVII-XX.
note: The article provides information about history of research and new information about the anatomy, morphology and distribution of several species of Echinoderes. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Zelinka, C. (1907). Zur Kenntnis der Echinoderen. <em>Zoologischer Anzeiger.</em> 32(5): 130-136.
note: The article reports about kinorhynch morphology with an intensive discussion of Schepotieff (1907). [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Higgins, R. P.; Thiel, H. (1988). Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. <em>Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.</em> 488 pp.
note: The book chapter reviews briefly the classification, habitats, collection and further processing of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Adrianov, A. V. and Malakhov, V. V. (1995). The phylogeny and classification of the phylum Cephalorhyncha. <em>Zoosystematics Rossica.</em> 3(2): 181-201.
note: The article argues about a phylogenetic system of Cephalorhyncha comprising fossila and recent taxa of Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, and Nematomorpha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Adrianov, A. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (1994). Kinorhyncha: Structure, development, phylogeny and taxonomy. <em>Nauka Publishing, Moscow.</em> 1–262. [in Russian].
note: The book describes light microscopy, TEM, SEM, postembryonic development, phylogeny and taxonomy of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source de Beauchamp, P. (1965). Classe des kinorhynques. Echinodères (Dujardin 1851)—Kinorhyncha (Reinhard 1887). <em>In: Grassé, P.-P. (ed.), Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, systématique, biologie. Masson et Cie Éditeurs Libraires de l'Académie de Médecine, Paris.</em> Vol. IV Némathelminthes (nématodes, gordiacés, rotifères, gastrotriches, kinorhynques), fascicule 3: 1407–1419.
note: The book chapter covers almost all aspects of Kinorhyncha, including morphology, reproduction, postembryonic development, phylogeny, distribution, and taxonomy. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Adrianov, A. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (1996). The phylogeny and classification of the class Kinorhyncha. <em>Zoosystematics Rossica.</em> 4 (1): 23-44.
note: The article provides a phylogenetic analysis and a classification of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Reinhard, W. (1883). Zum Bau der Echinoderes. <em>Protokoll der VII. Versammlung russischer Naturforscher und Ärzte. Sitzung der zoologischen Sektion den 22. August 1883, Odessa.</em> Vol. 2A (3): 1-11 [in Russian]. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Yamasaki, H.; Hiruta, S. F.; Kajihara, H. (2013). Molecular phylogeny of kinorhynchs. <em>Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.</em> 67(2): 303-310., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.02.016 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Schepotieff, A. (1908). 3. Zur Kenntnis der Echinoderiden. <em>Zoologischer Anzeiger.</em> 32: 585-589.
note: The article reports about kinorhynch morphology with an intensive discussion of Zelinka (1907). [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Kristensen, R. M. (2001). Kinorhyncha. <em>Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.</em> , available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/npg.els.0001590
note: Short review of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Remane, A. (1936). Aschelminthes. Kinorhyncha (= Echinodera). In: Remane, A., Gastrotricha und Kinorhyncha, Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. 4. Band: Vermes, II. Abteilung: Aschelminthes, Trochelminthes, 1. Buch, 2.Teil: Gastrotricha und Kinorhyncha, pp.243-372, Appendix pp. 373–385.
note: The book chapter covers almost all aspects of Kinorhyncha, including morphology, reproduction, postembryonic development, phylogeny, parasites, ecology, distribution, and taxonomy. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Needham, A. E. (1989). 10. Kinorhyncha. In: Adiyodi, K.G. & Adiyodi, R.G. (eds). <em>Reproductive biology of invertebrates.</em> Vol IV, Part A: Fertilization, development, and parental care. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 207–217.
note: The book chapter reviews aspects of the reproductive biology of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Adrianov, A. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (1995). Synopsis of the system of the phylum Cephalorhyncha. <em>Russian Journal of Marine Biology.</em> 21 (2): 89-96.
note: The article suggests a classification of Cephalorhyncha comprising fossila and recent taxa of Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, and Nematomorpha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Remane, A. (1929). Dritte Klasse des Cladus Nemathelminthes. Kinorhyncha = Echinodera. <em>De Gruyter, Berlin, Handbuch der Zoologie.</em> Band 2, Lieferung 6, 187-248.
note: The book chapter covers almost all aspects of Kinorhyncha, including morphology, reproduction, postembryonic development, phylogeny, parasites, ecology, distribution, and taxonomy. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

status source Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. <em>PLOS ONE.</em> 10(4). (look up in IMIS), available online at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119248 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

identification resource Sørensen, M. V.; Pardos, F. (2020). Kinorhyncha. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (Ed.), Guide to the identification of marine meiofauna. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich. 391-414.
note: The authors describe and illustrate the morphological characters necessary for identification of Kinorhyncha at genus level, habitats, extraction, and provide an illustrated identification key at genu...  
The authors describe and illustrate the morphological characters necessary for identification of Kinorhyncha at genus level, habitats, extraction, and provide an illustrated identification key at genus level.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

identification resource Adrianov, A. V. (2011). Phylum Cephalorhyncha, class Kinorhyncha. In: Buzhinskaja, G.N. (ed.), Illustrated key to the invertebrates of Eurasien Arctic Seas and adjacent deep waters, Vol. 2 Nemertea, Cephalorhyncha, Oligochaeta, Hirudinida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula, Phoronida, and Brachiopoda. <em>Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks.</em> pp. 41-49.
note: The author provides an illustrated key for the identification of Eurasien Arctic Kinorhyncha at species level. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

identification resource Sørensen, M. V.; Pardos, F. (2008). Kinorhynch systematics and biology – an introduction to the study of kinorhynchs, inclusive identification keys to the genera. <em>Meiofauna Marina.</em> 16: 21-73.
note: The authors describe and illustrate the morphological characters necessary for identification of Kinorhyncha at genus level, habitats, collection, sample processing including mounting for light micros...  
The authors describe and illustrate the morphological characters necessary for identification of Kinorhyncha at genus level, habitats, collection, sample processing including mounting for light microscopy, glossary of terms, and provide an illustrated identification key at genus level.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

identification resource Yamasaki, H. (2017). Diversity of Kinorhyncha in Japan and phylogenetic relationships of the phylum. In: Motokawa, M. & Kajihara, H. (eds), Species diversity of animals in Japan, diversity and commonality in animals. Springer Press, Tokyo. pp. 543-563., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-56432-4_21
note: The book chapter reviews the extraction of specimens, the research history of Kinorhyncha in Japan, and the phylogeny of the group, provides a species record list and and multi-entry identification gu...  
The book chapter reviews the extraction of specimens, the research history of Kinorhyncha in Japan, and the phylogeny of the group, provides a species record list and and multi-entry identification guide to genus level.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

identification resource Remane, A. (1928). VII. d2 Kinorhyncha. In: Grimpe, G. & Wagler, E. (eds), Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Becker & Erler, Leipzig. VIId5: 57-84.
note: The book chapter provides general information about the study of Kinorhyncha, their morphology, postembryonic development, distribution, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships, as well as an identifi...  
The book chapter provides general information about the study of Kinorhyncha, their morphology, postembryonic development, distribution, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships, as well as an identification key at genus level and sometimes at species level.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

biology source Adrianov, A. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (1999). 7. Kinorhyncha. <em>In: Adiyodi, K.G. & Adiyodi, R.G. (eds.) Reproductive biology of invertebrates, Vol. IX, Part A: Progress in male gamete ultrastructure and phylogeny. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.</em> pp. 193–211.
note: The bok chapter reviews the ultrastructure of the male reproductive system of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

biology source Neuhaus, B.; Higgins, R. P. (2002). Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of Kinorhyncha. <em>Integrative and Comparative Biology.</em> 42(3): 619-632., available online at https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/42.3.619
note: review of TEM studies, functional morphology and relationships to Priapulida and Loricifera; new findings about localization of chitin in the cuticle at TEM level [details]   

biology source Neuhaus, B. (1999). Kinorhyncha. In: Knobil, E. & Neill, J. D. (eds), Encyclopedia of reproduction, Vol 2, pp. 933-937. Academic Press, New York.
note: review of reproduction in Kinorhyncha [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

biology source Neuhaus, B. (2004). 19. Kinorhyncha. In: Hofrichter, R. (ed.), Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie. Vol. II/2 Bestimmungsführer, pp. 646-653. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
note: general treatment of Kinorhyncha and identification guide for Mediterranean species [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

biology source Higgins, R. P. (1974). Chapter 11 Kinorhyncha. In: Giese, A. C. & Pearse, J. S. (Eds), Reproduction of marine invertebrates, Vol. I. Acoelomate and pseudocoelomate metazoans. Academic Press, New York, pp. 507-518.
note: The book chapter reviews the reproduction of Kinorhyncha. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

biology source Zelinka, C. (1914). Zwei Ektoparasiten der Echinoderen aus der Klasse der Ciliaten. <em>Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte.</em> 85. Versammlung zu Wien, Teil 2, 1. Hälfte, Nr. 13, 680-683.
note: Inadvertantly, the article introduces two protozoan ectoparasites on kinorhynchs, viz, Cothurnia bütschlii and Acineta tuba. These species are actually redescribed in Zelinka (1928). [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality