NARMS taxon details

Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815

23022  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:23022)

accepted
Family
Subfamily Cypraeinae Rafinesque, 1815
  » Genus Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758
    » Species Cypraea achatidea Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (original combination)
      » Subspecies Cypraea achatidea inopinata Schilder, 1939 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. auricoma Crosse, 1897 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. bifasciata Hidalgo, 1906 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. efasciata Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. elongata Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. globosa Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. lineata Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. major Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. minor Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. nana Crosse, 1897 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. oranica Crosse, 1897 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. physoides Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. punctata Pallary, 1900 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. quadrifasciata Hidalgo, 1906 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea achatidea var. trifasciata Hidalgo, 1906 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea amethistina Costa O.G., 1830 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea arctica Pulteney, 1799 accepted as Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea arenosa Dillwyn, 1823 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea aurora Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea bifasciata Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea bullata Montagu, 1803 accepted as Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799)
    » Species Cypraea candidula Gaskoin, 1836 accepted as Trivia candidula (Gaskoin, 1836)
    » Species Cypraea cinnamomaea Olivi, 1792 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea coccinella Lamarck, 1810 accepted as Trivia monacha (da Costa, 1778)
    » Species Cypraea crebricostata G. B. Sowerby II, 1870 accepted as Trivia multilirata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1870) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea elliptica Gray, 1825 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea europaea Montagu, 1808 accepted as Trivia monacha (da Costa, 1778)
    » Species Cypraea facifer (Iredale, 1935) accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea foedata Sulliotti, 1911 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea fulva Gmelin, 1791 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea gracilis Gaskoin, 1849 accepted as Purpuradusta gracilis (Gaskoin, 1849) (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea grayi Kiener, 1844 accepted as Schilderia achatidea (Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1837) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea guttata Risso, 1826 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea hamyi Rochebrune, 1886 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea insularum Schilder, 1928 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea interpunctata Henn, 1896 accepted as Purpuradusta gracilis notata (Gill, 1858) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea irescens G. B. Sowerby II, 1870 accepted as Purpuradusta gracilis notata (Gill, 1858) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea kunthii Audouin, 1826 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea lentiginosa J.E. Gray, 1825 accepted as Palmadusta lentiginosa (J.E. Gray, 1825)
    » Species Cypraea leucogaster Gmelin, 1791 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea lunata Fischer von Waldheim, 1807 accepted as Naria spurca spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea lurida Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (original combination)
      » Subspecies Cypraea lurida congiunta Settepassi, 1977 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (not available, published in a work which does not consistently use binominal nomenclature (ICZN art. 11.4))
      » Subspecies Cypraea lurida elongata Settepassi, 1977 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (not available, published in a work which does not consistently use binominal nomenclature (ICZN art. 11.4))
      » Subspecies Cypraea lurida immaculata Settepassi, 1977 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (not available, published in a work which does not consistently use binominal nomenclature (ICZN art. 11.4))
      » Subspecies Cypraea lurida oceanica Schilder, 1930 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. albida Costa O.G., 1829 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. brunnea Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. caerulescens Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. cinerea Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. concolor Kobelt, 1906 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. curta Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. cylindrica Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. fasciata Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. fulva Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. major Pallary, 1900 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. maxima Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. media Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. minima Dunker, 1853 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. monochroa Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. monstrosa Gray J.E., 1828 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. nebulosa Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. normalis Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. pubescens Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. rufescens Costa O.G., 1829 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. rufofulva Kobelt, 1906 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. turdicula Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. ventricosa Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. virescens Costa O.G., 1829 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea lurida var. zonata Mollerat, 1890 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea macula Angas, 1867 accepted as Purpuradusta gracilis macula (Angas, 1867) (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea maculata Gmelin, 1791 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea mediterranea Risso, 1826 accepted as Trivia mediterranea (Risso, 1826)
    » Species Cypraea minima Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea monacha da Costa, 1778 accepted as Trivia monacha (da Costa, 1778) (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea multilirata G. B. Sowerby II, 1870 accepted as Trivia multilirata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1870)
    » Species Cypraea nivea Gray J.E., 1824 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea norvegica Sars M., 1835 accepted as Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea notata Gill, 1858 accepted as Purpuradusta gracilis notata (Gill, 1858)
    » Species Cypraea ovata Perry, 1811 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea pardalina Dunker, 1852 accepted as Erosaria turdus pardalina (Dunker, 1852)
    » Species Cypraea petitiana Crosse, 1872 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (dubious synonym)
    » Species Cypraea phyllidis Shaw, 1915 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea piriformis Roberts in Tryon, 1885 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea porcellus Brocchi, 1814 † accepted as Zonaria porcellus (Brocchi, 1814) † (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea pulex Gray J.E., 1827 accepted as Trivia mediterranea (Risso, 1826) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea pyriformis G. B. Sowerby II, 1870 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea pyrum Gmelin, 1791 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (original combination)
      » Subspecies Cypraea pyrum insularum Schilder, 1928 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Subspecies Cypraea pyrum senegalensis Schilder, 1928 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. aurantia (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. compressa (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. confusa (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. cruenta (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. elongata (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. fusca Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. grandis Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. hepatica Coen, 1933 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. lacticolor Pallary, 1906 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. minima Dunker, 1803 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. minor Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. nivosa (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. normalis Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. pallida Pallary, 1900 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. physoides Coen, 1933 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. piperitoides (Coen, 1949) accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. trifasciata Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. typica Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea pyrum var. undata Pallary, 1904 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea raripunctata Sulliotti, 1911 accepted as Erosaria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea rufa Lamarck, 1810 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea siciliana Salis Marschlins, 1793 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea spurca Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (original combination)
      » Subspecies Cypraea spurca globosa Settepassi, 1977 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (not available, published in a work which does not consistently use binominal nomenclature (ICZN art. 11.4))
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. albida Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. atlantica Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. dilatata Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. elongata Dautzenberg & Fischer H., 1906 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. flavida Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. inaequipartita Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. inflata (Coen, 1949) accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. inversa Pallary, 1900 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. limitaris Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. limpida Sulliotti, 1922 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. luridoidea Pallary, 1900 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. major Pallary, 1900 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. minor Pallary, 1900 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. nitidiuscula (Coen, 1949) accepted as Naria acicularis (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. normalis Monterosato, 1897 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. pantherina Pallary, 1919 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. peculiaris (Coen, 1949) accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. punctatissima Settepassi, 1977 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (not available, published in a work which does not consistently use binominal nomenclature (ICZN art. 11.4))
      » Variety Cypraea spurca var. viridula Sulliotti, 1924 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea turdus Lamarck, 1810 accepted as Naria turdus (Lamarck, 1810) (original combination)
    » Species Cypraea variolosa Gmelin, 1791 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea verdensia Melvill, 1888 accepted as Erosaria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
    » Species Cypraea voluta Montagu, 1803 accepted as Erato voluta (Montagu, 1803)
    » Species Cypraea zanzibarica Sulliotti, 1911 accepted as Erosaria turdus zanzibarica (Sullioti, 1911)
Subfamily Erosariinae Schilder, 1924
  » Genus Naria Gray, 1837
    » Species Naria acicularis (Gmelin, 1791)
    » Species Naria spurca (Linnaeus, 1758)
      » Subspecies Naria spurca spurca (Linnaeus, 1758)
    » Species Naria turdus (Lamarck, 1810)
  » Genus Erosaria Troschel, 1863 accepted as Naria Gray, 1837
Subfamily Erroneinae Schilder, 1927
Subfamily Luriinae Schilder, 1932
  » Genus Luria Jousseaume, 1884
    » Species Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758)
      » Variety Luria lurida var. badia Coen, 1949 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Luria lurida var. incrassata Coen, 1933 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Luria lurida var. liburnica Coen, 1933 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Luria lurida var. obstructa Coen, 1933 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
      » Variety Luria lurida var. onycina Coen, 1933 accepted as Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonym)
Genus Palmadusta Iredale, 1930
Genus Purpuradusta Schilder, 1939
Subfamily Pustulariinae Gill, 1871
  » Tribe Zonariini Schilder, 1932
    » Genus Zonaria Jousseaume, 1884
      » Species Zonaria porcellus (Brocchi, 1814) †
      » Species Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791)
      » Species Zonaria piriformis Locard, 1886 accepted as Zonaria pyrum (Gmelin, 1791) (synonym)
Genus Schilderia Tomlin, 1930
Genus Trona Jousseaume, 1884

Genus Cupinota Iredale, 1939 accepted as Erosaria Troschel, 1863 (nomen nudum)

Genus Brugnonia Jeffreys, 1883 accepted as Erosaria Troschel, 1863
Genus Peribolus Blainville, 1824 accepted as Trona Jousseaume, 1884 (Invalid: nomen oblitum)
marine
recent + fossil
Not documented
MolluscaBase eds. (2020). MolluscaBase. Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed through: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2020) European Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marbef.org/data/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=23022 on 2020-04-05
Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2020). European Register of Marine Species. Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed at: http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/narms/narms.php?p=taxdetails&id=23022 on 2020-04-05
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
db_admin
2009-03-28 21:19:53Z
changed
2012-11-24 01:20:16Z
changed

basis of record Bouchet, P., Rocroi, J.-P. (2005). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. <em>Malacologia.</em> 47(1-2): 1-397 ISBN 3-925919-72-4. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Lorenz F. (2002) New worldwide cowries. Descriptions of new taxa and revisions of selected groups of living Cypraeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). <i>Schriften zur Malakozoologie aus dem Haus der Natur-Cismar</i> 20: 1-292, pls 1-40. [details]   

additional source Lorenz F. & Hubert A. (2000) A guide to worldwide cowries. Edition 2. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 584 pp. [details]   

additional source Meyer C. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. <i>Biological Journal of the Linnean Society</i>, 79: 401-459. [details]   

additional source Schilder, M. & Schilder, F. A. (1971) A catalogue of living and fossil cowries. A taxonomy and bibliography of Triviacea and Cypraeacea (Gastropoda Prosobranchia). Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Mémoires, Deuxième Series, 85: 1-246 [details]   

additional source Burgess, C.M. (1985) Cowries of the World. Gordon verhoef, Seacomber Publications, South Africa, Cape Town. XIV + 289 pp. [details]   

additional source Moretzsohn, F. (2014). Cypraeidae: How well-inventoried is the best-known seashell family?. <em>American Malacological Bulletin.</em> 32(2): 278-289., available online at https://doi.org/10.4003/006.032.0219
page(s): 278-289 [details]   

additional source Lorenz, F. (2017). <i>Cowries. A guide to the gastropod family Cypraeidae</i>. Volume 1, <i>Biology and systematics</i>. Harxheim: ConchBooks. 644 pp. [details]   

additional source Burgess, C.M. (1970). The Living Cowries. AS Barnes and Co, Ltd. Cranbury, New Jersey. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality