Coastal Zone Management
The basis of this article is especially written for the Coastal Wiki by the main author referred to at the bottom of this page.
This article describes a framework for coastal zone management. More information on the management of coastal zones is also provided in the article The Integrated approach to Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
A skilled, powerful and legally backed system of (Integrated) Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) can avoid many coastal related problems in the future. An experienced coastal zone manager is able to overview most of the coastal engineering issues associated with the further developments of the coastal zone. In some countries (in most cases as a long lasting learning process) suitable systems of ICZM are in operation at present.
Coastal Zone Management is a profession that has as yet not developed generally accepted methodologies and techniques. One of the possible ICZM frameworks is characterized by five key words (the so-called “5 I - Approach”):
- ICZM process;
This division was first introduced by Chua (1993) and worked out further by the Coastal Zone Management Center in The Hague. Next section explains this framework in more detail.
A framework for Coastal Zone Management
The Coastal Zone Management Center in The Hague developed a graphical representation of the 5 I - Approach. It includes the above five components of ICZM and defines a series of phases, together with the tasks that should be performed for each phase. A simplified version is given in Figure 1.
The interaction between nature and man is the starting point of the framework. It defines the issues that will be addressed by ICZM. These are generally defined during an inception phase of a project. The importance of the issues is determined by information on the state of the natural and human environment. This information is collected by monitoring of the respective environments, under the guidance and control of the institutional infrastructure. Hereto, the monitoring system is used that is part of the technical infrastructure. Collected data flow back into the institutional infrastructure and is used as a basis for management actions. The resulting technical and administrative actions are indicated by the bold arrows in Figure 1. They are effectuated through the technical and institutional infrastructure respectively. Together they are the inputs for the ICZM process. The right box in the figure shows the stakeholders. The arrow shows the interaction with these stakeholders through an open communication process.
For more information about ICZM, see Capacity Building Needs Associated to the ICZM Cycle, The Integrated approach to Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). For information in the context of Europe, see The European Context.
For multiple definitions of ICZM, see Some definitions of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
- Chua Thia-Eng, (1993), Essential elements of integrated coastal zone management, p81-108
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