Four-way coupling

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Definition of Four-way coupling:
Two-way coupling + particle-fluid-particle interactions (fluid streamlines compressed between particles) and particle-particle interactions (collisions and friction), which occur at volumetric concentrations above 0.1% [1].
This is the common definition for Four-way coupling, other definitions can be discussed in the article

See also


  1. Elghobashi, S. (1994). On predicting particle-laden turbulent flows. Applied Scientific Research, 52:309-329.