HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) and Helsinki Convention
The Helsinki Commission, or HELCOM, is the governing body of the “Convention on the Protection of the Baltic Sea Area” which is commonly also known as Helsinki Convention. HELCOM works to protect the marine environment of the Baltic Sea from all sources of pollution, and to restore and safeguard its ecological balance through intergovernmental co-operation between:
- the EU
Belarus and the Ukraine take part in the process as observers. As Figure 1 shows, they, like also the Czech Republic, are part of the catchment area of the Baltic Sea.
HELCOM works as an environmental policy-maker for Baltic Sea concerns, but also as the body to coordinate and supervise the implementation by the Contracting Parties. In addition to that, HELCOM provides information about the environmental status and trends in the Baltic Sea Area, the measures and their efficiency.
In 1974 seven states were bordering the Baltic Sea. The Helsinki Convention of this year was the first agreement taking into account all the sources of pollution to the Baltic Sea at once. It entered into force on 3 May 1980. Due to changes in the political situation and developments in international environmental and maritime law, a new convention was signed in 1992. The European Community completed the membership of all now bordering states. After ratification the Convention entered into force on 17 January 2000. It covers not only the Sea area itself, but also inland waters in the catchment and the Sea bed. Therefore, also land-based pollution as one important source for pollution to the Sea is subject to management by HELCOM.
The Commission meets annually and decides unanimously on recommendations on the marine environment. Each Contracting party is given 1 vote in the Commission. The EU may vote for its member states if these do comply or are not present. These recommendations are then put into law by all respective countries of the Contracting Parties. Extraordinary meetings of the Commission are enforced after request from one Contracting Party and the endorsement of another one.
In addition, ministerial meetings are also held at least every 3 years, leading to Ministerial Declarations.
While the chairmanship rotates between the countries every two years (in the alphabetical order in English), the secretariat has a constant address in Helsinki, Finland. Here, at the headquarters of the organisation there are 13 people employed at the moment, including one Executive Secretary. The Secretariat supports the working structure of HELCOM, which is shown in Figure 2.
Besides the meetings of the Contracting Parties, there is an extra board of the Heads of Delegation and the 5 main working groups of HELCOM as subsidiary bodies of the Commission:
- The Monitoring and Assessment Group (HELCOM MONAS)
- The Land-based Pollution Group (HELCOM LAND)
- The Nature Protection and Biodiversity Group (HELCOM HABITAT)
- The Maritime Group (HELCOM MARITIME)
- The Response Group (HELCOM RESPONSE)
These five groups implement the policies and strategies in the different aspects of HELCOM´s work and in return propose issues to discuss at the Heads of Delegation meetings. At these meetings, which are held at least twice a year, the proposals of the groups have to be approved before they are passed on to the Commission.
The general tasks of the Heads of Delegations meetings are to:
- supervise implementation of Commission policy
- make policy and strategy proposals to the Commission
- provide guidance to and support the Executive Secretary in programme development and management
- carry out all other tasks which they may be given by the Commission
As mentioned above, Belarus and the Ukraine are official HELCOM observers. In addition there are many more international governmental and non-governmental organisations observing the process of HELCOM´s work e.g. at its meetings.
Aims and objectives
The main objective is a to create a healthy Baltic Sea environment with diverse biological components functioning in balance, resulting in a good ecological status and supporting a wide range of sustainable economic and social activities. Priorities are:
- Eutrophication assessment (especially the contribution of agriculture)
- Hazardous substances
- Land and maritime transport sector
- Environmental impacts of fishery management and practices
- Protection and conservation of marine and coastal biodiversity
- Implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Environmental Action Programme  and HELCOM Recommendations 
Principles and obligations
- Responsibility: contracting Parties shall individually or jointly take all appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures to prevent and eliminate pollution.
- The precautionary principle: preventive measures must be taken when a direct or indirect threat exists to the marine environment, human health or may be harmful to living resources and marine ecosystems.
- Best Environmental Practices and Best Available Technologies: in order to prevent the pollution of the Baltic Sea.
- Polluter Pays principle: contracting Parties are responsible in forcing polluters to pay for the true costs of their activities that are harmful to the marine life in the Baltic Sea.
- Monitoring: measuring emissions of point and diffuse sources and correct scientific interpretation of the results.
- Avoiding risks: the measures taken by the Parties may not lead to unwanted effects on the quality of water and air or cause increased risks to human health, both within and outside the Baltic Sea.
In addition to the work carried out by the five main groups, specific programs can be launched. These projects deal with topics that can not be covered by the five main groups in this way. Therefore, these projects have defined time limits and Terms of Reference.
Projects can be suggested by all parts of HELCOM organisation and can be funded internally or externally. For a list of all running projects click here .
Baltic Sea action plan
The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan is an ambitious programme to restore the good ecological status of the Baltic marine environment by 2021. It applies the Ecosystem Approach to the management of human activities. The document can be downloaded in pdf-Format .
Joint HELCOM/OSPAR Work Programme on Marine Protected Areas
At the first joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commissions (JMM) in Bremen an 25-26 June 2003 the above named programme was adopted. The purpose of the work programme is to ensure that by 2010 there is an ecologically coherent network of well managed marine protected areas (MPAs) for the maritime areas of both HELCOM (Baltic Sea) and OSPAR (North East Atlantic).
Full text of The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea, 1992 (Helsinki Convention 
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