Naphthalene

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Definition of naphthalene:
Naphthalene (also called white tar and tar camphor) is a white solid that evaporates easily. Its present in fuels such as petroleum and coal and has been used in mothballs and moth flakes. Burning tobacco or wood produces naphthalene. It has a strong but not unpleasant smell[1].
This is the common definition for naphthalene, other definitions can be discussed in the article

Notes

Naphthalene
naphthalene
Formula
C10H8

Naphthalene can be produced from coal or petroleum. Production volume in the United States decreased significantly from a peak of 409.000 tons in 1968 to 101.000 tons in 1994. Production capacity has remained relatively stable in recent years, with estimated capacity for 2004 at 97.700 tons. The major commercial use of naphthalene is in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The major consumer products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the form of mothballs or crystals, and toilet deodorant blocks. It is also used for making dyes, resins, leather tanning agents, and the insecticide carbaryl. It enters the environment from industrial uses, from its use as a moth repellent, from the burning of wood or tobacco and from accidental spills[1].

Most of the naphthalene entering the environment is discharged to the air. The largest releases result from the combustion of wood and fossil fuels and the naphthalene-containing moth repellents. Smaller amounts of naphthalene are introduced to water as the result of discharges from coal-tar production and distillation processes.

In the atmosphere naphthalene is broken down rapidly, usually within one day. From the atmosphere it can also very slowly be depositioned in water. It has a low water solubility of 31,7 µg/l and a rather low tendency to adsorb to particles. It is expected that only 10% of the naphthalene in water bodies is associated with particles. The main loss of naphthalene from water water bodies is by evaporation into the atmosphere.

Naphthalene has a very low potential towards bioaccumulation, and will be rapidly eliminated from vertebrates. Therefore naphtalene is not expected to biomagnify through food chains[1].

Concentrations above 1 mg/l can cause acute toxicity to some species of fish, crustaceans and zooplankton[2].

Naphthalene concentrations in the South Atlantic ocean are around 6,3 ng/l[1].


Environmental standards and legislation

Included in the water framework list of priority substances


See also

Naphthalene on the ED North Database

Naphthalene on the Ecotox Database


References

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES August 2005 TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR NAPHTHALENE, 1-METHYLNAPHTHALENE, AND 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
  2. www.pesticideinfo.org August 18 2009
The main author of this article is Daphnis De Pooter
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