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Manual Sediment Transport Measurements in Rivers, Estuaries and Coastal Seas

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This article is recommended by the editorial team.

This article introduces the Manual Sediment Transport Measurements in Rivers, Estauries and Coastal Seas (Van Rijn, 1986[1]; 2007[2]). The article contains links to articles with summaries of the manual and to the pdf-files of the manual. See also the alphabetic overview of all articles with summaries of the manual.

Introduction

manual sediment transport measurements

The Manual Sediment Transport Measurements in Rivers, Estauries and Coastal Seas is a volume of about 500 pages containing all details of measurement instruments and methods for mud, silt and sand transport in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas. The manual includes: definitions and measuring principles and errors involved, methods to compute sediment transport from measured data, a wide range of instruments from simple mechanical samplers to sophisticated electronic equipment. Bed load transport as well as suspended load transport are addressed. Methods and instruments to measure particle size and particle fall velocity are discussed. Laboratory and in-situ sample analysis are described. Instrumentation for determining the wet bulk density of bed material (important for dredging studies) is presented. Remote sensing by video camera recording is also discussed. Regular updates of the methods and instrumentation are made.

The manual was first published in 1986 and updated in 1993, 2005 and 2007. The manual is written by L.C. van Rijn (Delft Hydraulics and University of Utrecht, The Netherlands) issued by Rijkswaterstaat (Public Works Department in The Netherlands) and Aqua Publications. L.C. van Rijn is senior research and project engineer of the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory.

The Coastal Wiki comprises a summary of the manual. All summarizing articles contain links to pdf-files of the manual, which are hosted on a website of WL|Delft Hydraulics

Summaries at the Coastal Wiki

Example 1: Wesp placing tripod in coastal zone

Theme 9 of the Coastal Wiki contains over thirty articles with summaries of parts of the manual. The different chapters of the manual are summarized in next articles:


Example 2: Pump sampler for rivers

For Chapter 5 most of the sections and sub-sections are also summarized in separate articles:


See also the alphabetic overview of all articles with summaries of the manual.

Content and pdf-files of the manual

The manual can be downloaded as one or multiple pdf-files from a website from WL|Delft Hydraulics. It is also possible to download separate chapters of the manual. For Chapter 5, it is also possible to download pdf-files of separate sections and sub-sections. Below the Table of contents of the manual and links to pdf-files are given.

1. INTRODUCTION, PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES (0,4 Mb)

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Sedimentation and erosion problems in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas
    • 1.2.1 Introduction
    • 1.2.2 Sedimentation and erosion problems
    • 1.2.3 Approach of sedimentation problems

2. MORPHOLOGICAL DEFINITIONS AND PROCESSES (2,8 Mb)

  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Definitions
  • 2.3 Fluid flow and sediment properties
    • 2.3.1 Introduction
    • 2.3.2 Sediment classification
    • 2.3.3 Fluid and sediment properties
  • 2.4 Sediment transport processes
    • 2.4.1 Introduction
    • 2.4.2 Sand transport
      • 2.4.2.1 Sand transport in steady river flow
      • 2.4.2.2 Sand transport in non-steady (tidal) flow
      • 2.4.2.3 Sand transport in combined non-steady (tidal) flow and oscillatory flow (waves)
    • 2.4.3 Mud transport
      • 2.4.3.1 General characteristics, definitions and modelling approaches
      • 2.4.3.2 Cohesion
      • 2.4.3.3 Flocculation
      • 2.4.3.4 Settling
      • 2.4.3.5 Deposition
      • 2.4.3.6 Saturation
      • 2.4.3.7 Consolidation
      • 2.4.3.8 Erosion
      • 2.4.3.9 Transport of mud
  • 2.5 Sediments and ecological processes in marine environments
    • 2.5.1 Overview of processes and impacts
    • 2.5.2 Ecology related to dredging, mining and dumping of sediment
    • 2.5.3 Results of field studies related to dredging and mining of sediment
  • 2.6 Sediments and pollution
    • 2.6.1 Introduction
    • 2.6.2 Dissolved and solid-associated materials
    • 2.6.3 Contaminants
    • 2.6.4 Processes in aquatic systems
    • 2.6.5 Dredged materials
  • 2.7 Mathematical models of sediment transport and morphology
    • 2.7.1 Introduction
    • 2.7.2 Flow models
    • 2.7.3 Wave models
    • 2.7.4 Sediment transport and morphological models
  • 2.8 Data Model Integration
    • 2.8.1 Introduction
    • 2.8.2 Definition of data model integration (DMI)
    • 2.8.3 Measures of agreement-Least squares norms
    • 2.8.4 Role of uncertainties in models and data
    • 2.8.5 Combination using DMI techniques reduces the uncertainty
    • 2.8.6 Formulation of the uncertainty
    • 2.8.7 Stochastic models
    • 2.8.8 Calibration of models
    • 2.8.9 Sequential data assimilation in dynamic (time-stepping) models

3. MEASURING PRINCIPLES, STATISTICS AND ERRORS (0,5 Mb)

  • 3.1 Measuring principles for suspended load transport
    • 3.1.1 Direct method
    • 3.1.2 Indirect method
  • 3.2 Measuring principles for bed load transport
    • 3.2.1 Direct method
    • 3.2.2 Indirect method
  • 3.3 Measuring statistics
    • 3.3.1 General aspects
    • 3.3.2 Sampling site
    • 3.3.3 Number of measurements for suspended load transport
      • 3.3.3.1 General aspects
      • 3.3.3.2 Number of points in a vertical
      • 3.3.3.3 Number of verticals over bed-form length
      • 3.3.3.4 Number of verticals in cross-section
      • 3.3.3.5 Number of verticals per tide
    • 3.3.4 Number of measurements for bed-load transport
      • 3.3.4.1 General aspects
      • 3.3.4.2 Number of samples at each location and number of locations along bed form
      • 3.3.4.3 Number of sampling locations over width of cross-section
    • 3.3.5 Sampling frequency
    • 3.3.6 Sampling methods
    • 3.3.7 Sample preservation and in-situ sampling
    • 3.3.8 Sampling flexibility
  • 3.4 Measuring errors and required accuracy

4. COMPUTATION OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

  • 4.1 Rivers (4,2 Mb)
    • 4.1.1 Total load transport per unit width
    • 4.1.2 Bed-load transport per unit width
    • 4.1.3 Suspended load transport per unit width
      • 4.1.3.1 Partial method
      • 4.1.3.2 Integral method
    • 4.1.4 Total load transport per cross-section
    • 4.1.5 Presentation of results
  • 4.2 Estuaries
    • 4.2.1 Tide-integrated total load transport
    • 4.2.2 Presentation of results

5. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

6. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR PARTICLE SIZE AND FALL VELOCITY

7. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR BED MATERIAL SAMPLING

  • 7.1 General Aspects
  • 7.2 Bed material samplers: grab, dredge and scoop samplers
  • 7.3 Bed material samplers: core samplers
  • 7.4 Particle size of bed materials (6,4 Mb)
    • 7.4.1 Based on metallic trace elements (MEDUSA)
    • 7.4.2 Based on acoustic reflection (ROXANN)
  • 7.5 Movement of bed material particles
    • 7.5.1 Critical bed-shear stress for initiation of motion
    • 7.5.2 Tracer studies

8. LABORATORY AND IN-SITU ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES (2,0 Mb)

  • 8.1 Sediment concentration
    • 8.1.1 Evaporation method
    • 8.1.2 Filtration method
    • 8.1.3 Units
  • 8.2 Bed material composition
    • 8.2.1 General aspects
    • 8.2.2 Detailed method
    • 8.2.3 Simple method
  • 8.3 Suspended sediment composition
    • 8.3.1 General aspects
    • 8.3.2 Sandy environment
    • 8.3.3 Silty environment
    • 8.3.4 Sandy-silty environment
  • 8.4 Sediment density
    • 8.4.1 Detailed method
    • 8.4.2 Simple method
  • 8.5 Chemical analysis
  • 8.6 Laboratory equipment

9. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WET BULK DENSITY (1,1 Mb)

  • 9.1 General aspects
  • 9.2 Mechanical core sampler
  • 9.3 Acoustic sensor
  • 9.4 Nuclear radiation sensor

10. INSTRUMENTS FOR BED LEVEL DETECTION (1,8 Mb)

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Mechanical bed level detection in combination with DGPS
  • 10.3 Acoustic bed level detection (Echo-sounding instruments)
  • 10.4 Optical bed level detection
  • 10.5 Conclusions

11. ARGUS VIDEO SYSTEM (1,4 Mb)

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 History of ARGUS
  • 11.3 ARGUS worldwide
  • 11.4 ARGUS image types and conventions
  • 11.5 ARGUS standard image processing
  • 11.6 ARGUS tools
  • 11.7 ARGUS applications

ANNEX A: MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR FLUID VELOCITY, PRESSURE AND WAVE HEIGHT

  • A1 Introduction
  • A2 Velocity sensors (3,4 Mb)
    • A2.1 Velocities and bed-shear stresses, instrument characteristics and accuracies
    • A2.2 Electro-Magnetic Velocitymeter (EMV)
    • A2.3 Acoustic Doppler Velocitymeter (ADV)
    • A2.4 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP, UVP)
    • A2.5 Phased Array Doppler Sonar (PADS)
    • A2.6 Coherent Doppler Velocity Profiler (CDVP) and Cross-Correlation Velocity Profiler (CCVP)
  • A3 Comparison of measured velocities
    • A3.1 Electro-Magnetic Velocitymeter (EMV) and Laser Doppler Velocitymeter (LDV)
    • A3.2 Acoustic Doppler Velocitymeter (ASTM) and Electro-Magnetic Velocitymeter (EMV)
    • A3.3 Acoustic Doppler Velocitymeters (ADV)
    • A3.4 Ultra-sonic Velocity Profiler (UPV) and Particle Image Velocitymeter (PIV)
  • A4 Fluid pressure and wave height instruments
    • A4.1 General instrument characteristics, accuracies and selection criteria
  • A5 Comparison of measured wave heights
    • A5.1 Pressure sensor and capacity wire
    • A5.2 Pressure sensor and surface following wave gauge
    • A5.3 Pressure sensors
    • A5.4 Velocity sensor, fluid pressure sensor and capacity wires
    • A5.5 Pressure sensor and resistance wave staff
    • A5.6 Accelerometer and DGPS on wave rider bouy

See also

References

  1. Rijn, L. C. van (1986). Manual sediment transport measurements. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft Hydraulics Laboratory
  2. Rijn, L.C. van (2007)Manual sediment transport measurements in rivers,estuaries and coastal seas, Aquapublications, The Netherlands. 500 p.
The main authors of this article are Rijn, Leo van and Roberti, Hans
Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.