Theme 1 State of the Art / Introduction article
This article provides an overview on the state of the art for the development of Theme 1 on Multifunctionality and Valuation in coastal zones.
Rationale of the thematic network
Coastal zones include numerous different functions and uses which depend on the same limited resources and space. This fact frequently generates conflicts between different types of use. Furthermore, interventions regarding single functions of a coastal zone usually have important impacts on other uses within same area or on a vaster territorial scale. Impacts which climate change is expected to have on Europe's Coastal zones are going to accentuate existing and create new conflicts among uses. Sustainable decision making and management in such multifunctional areas thus requires the capacity to consider all different economic and social spheres contemporaneously asks for the integration of different interests into the decision making process.
In this context, evaluation approaches offer tools and methodologies which allow the description, analysis and assessment of coastal systems, using rational and systematic procedures. Furthermore these approaches include the possibility of confronting interests and values of different users and actors coming from different economic and social areas on the basis of criteria and indicators for establishing hierarchies of values or for translating values into terms which can be understood by all actors. Using evaluation and assessment techniques, information is provided which can support shared decision making confronting interests of different stakeholders and users of the coastal area in a co-ordinated and rational manner.
Within the Encora Network, one specific thematic network has been dedicated to discussing this twofold challenge: putting into evidence the problems arising from different and conflicting interests, pressures and impacts which originate from social and economic activities on coastal areas and discussing strategies for the integration of these conflicting interests into coastal management and decision making processes. The Thematic Network on Multifunctionality and Evaluation has collected and discussed up to date concepts, approaches, tools and methodologies which can be used as support in complex decision making processes and help coastal zone managers to consider the requests and needs originating from the variety of functions in Coastal zones.
Evaluation, understood as a means of informing decision making, is of crucial importance for introducing multifunctionality aspects into coastal zone management. Albeit their great potential, evaluation techniques and integrated decision making are still scarcely employed in European coastal zone management. It is desirable that the development of tools facilitating the multifunctional challenge represented by Coastal zones should be brought further by a collaboration between scientists and practitioners and their use promoted further among coastal zone managers. Considerable progress can be made at the European level by networking activities to spread existing examples of good practice and research amongst European partners.
Rationale for the Coastal Wiki
Within the ENCORA project it was decided to develop the Coastal WIKI to provide the most effective tool for networking and dissemination of the state of the art. The contributions of theme 1 to this State of the Art are grouped in four sections, dedicated respectively to:
- the definition of basic concepts underlying different evaluation approaches
- the description of different approaches at the basis of evaluation strategies, and of
- tools and methodologies which can be applied to the evaluation in coastal zone management contexts.
- case studies that provide examples of application of various methodologies.
The definition of some basic concepts underlying evaluation approaches has been considered useful for the understanding of the proposed approaches and methodologies. These definitions consider the relationship between multifunctionality on the one side, being one of the characteristics of coastal areas which represent a major challenge for sustainable decision making and management, and evaluation on the other side, which can be used as a support for decision making in complex and multifunctional contexts.
A second important definition regards the term value, as evaluation is used to attribute values to different options or to base decision making on rational judgements. In this context, the term economic value represents one of the basic concepts which allow for the adoption of a common measure for most of the values expressed by different actors.
Although economic value represents an important concept for the measurement of the value society attributes to a certain asset, some values may not be adapted to being measured directly in terms of market values, as they refer to objects which normally are not treated on markets. In those cases, the extension of the concept of value beyond the worth expressed by market values becomes relevant, introducing a concept of value which comprises, according to the theory of welfare economics, the benefit individuals derive from economic goods or services which not necessarily corresponds to the market value. The introduction of concept of individual benefit as a measure of social value allows for the evaluation of goods and services which cannot be exchanged on markets, such as natural resources. One of the most relevant concepts in this context is represented by the existence value which expresses the benefit individuals gain from the existence of goods which are not used directly independent of present or future uses that will be made of these assets, allowing thus to introduce the value of the existence of categories as natural resources biodiversity etc. into monetary evaluations.
Whereas accurate measurement of values will be adequate in some cases of evaluation, not all values can be revealed with a congruent effort. In order to facilitate monitoring and decision making processes of complex contexts, indicators based on data easy to access or to measure are used. A concept which is commonly measured by indicators is represented by sustainability, where aggregated judgements on the performance of many different entities with respect to one option have to be produced, leading to the definition of specific sets of sustainability indicators which allow also for international confrontation of performances.
Some impacts from human activities are not continuous, but may occur only with a certain probability and a certain variance in the entity of damages caused. The concept of Risk analysis introduces the concept of considering and quantifying aspects of uncertainty in order to integrate them into evaluation. The concept of Carrying capacity finally is based on the notion that ecosystems have a limited capacity of coping with environmental stresses. Approaches based on this concept point to a quantification of limits for socio-economic uses with respect to coastal systems, as for instance, tourism.
Based on the different concepts of values described, different approaches are applied to their assessment. As market values can easily be revealed and used for cost-benefit analyses those approaches based on market values represent the most common ones among evaluation approaches and have become quite widespread for the assessment of efficiency of an intervention.
Cost benefit analysis, based on monetary measurement, can also be applied on the combined evaluation of values based on market values and non market values. In these cases different approaches can be applied to translate non market – values into monetary terms, in order to include the relative values in the cost-benefit analysis. Those approaches are based on the assumption that market goods, properly analyzed, can reveal preferences consumers have with regards to non – market goods. In this way an approximation of the social value attributed to a protected area can be elicited by a computation of expenses tourist make to visit the area or by the hedonic analysis of housing prices in the surroundings of the park. Whereas in this case as well as in the case of housing prices, the value of natural resources is derived from consumer preferences expressed (stated) on the market, a second category of expressions of consumer’s preferences regards the revealed preferences, as for instance the consumer’s (hypothetic) willingness to pay for a service or a good elicited with the help of questionnaires.
In those cases where monetary values elicited in an indirect way do not represent a suitable scale for measurement, values can be expressed in terms of “preferences”, within approaches based on judgements and using techniques which allow for the comparison of multiple different criteria without a common measure. Each of these three principal approaches to evaluation are described in a section.
Tools and methodologies
The section tools and methodologies gives an overview on the state of the art in terms of tools for evaluation and assessment to be used in multifunctional coastal contexts. A specific attention has been paid to those tools which are able to integrate between different sectors and give account of different types of values, integrate broader social and economic aspects into project evaluations as in the case of Regional economic accounting methods. The group of tools, based on the use of economic accounting at different spatial levels, is able to assess the economic impact generated by existing or planned activities of by foreseen events on the regional economic structure, basing the analysis on input – output matrixes of goods and services, supply chain analysis or on Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models.
A further group of tools presented refers to approaches based on monetary valuation of non market values, either on the basis of stated Contingent Valuation Method or revealed preferences, as in the case of Hedonic Evaluation Approaches which use the decomposition of composite market values in order to estimate the component related to natural resources, or methods of travel cost analysis which base the estimation of values of natural resources on the expenses made by individuals who make use of them for leisure time activities. For each of these tools a short description is made which helps to understand the use and the possible outcomes of the technique, and further readings are indicated for studies in detail of the applications.
The application of these evaluation techniques may be quite expensive in terms of time and data requirement, as direct investigation with the help of questionnaires is required. An alternative to direct evaluation is represented by tools which facilitate the use of existing valuations to new evaluations. These tools can be used if data is available from sites with similar characteristics to those of the situation to be examined and allow for the transfer of values estimated in one site to another one.
Further tools for evaluation make use of Multicriteria techniques, which allow for an assessment of policy options based not only on cost-benefit or cost-efficiency criteria, but also on non monetary values or on preferences. An important element of these instruments is the choice of criteria, which have to be shared and understood by all actors, using either predefined sets of criteria such as sustainability indicators or developing proper sets of criteria to be applied to the problem or development at the stake in the specific decision making process. Therefore the involvement of stakeholders is essential, as the participation of possibly all relevant actors into the decision making process can provide for sustainable and shared decisions. The application of multicriteria techniques is thus strongly connected to tools for stakeholder analysis, as a preparatory tool in decision making processes. Further applicative tools in this sector are deliberation and decision support tools as well as knowledge mediation tools, which assist in structuring and informing decision making processes.
Information to be used in decision making processes is highly complex because of the variety of sectors to be considered as well as because of the complexity of single phenomena. Integrated System Frameworks help representing the links between causes, effects and reactions, facilitate the understanding of problems and assist and inform the choice of indicators for evaluation and monitoring.
Case studies can provide a valuable source of information on possible applications of tools and approaches and to guide future studies across Europe. The collection of case studies presented gives an illustration of strategies for evaluating impacts from different socio-economic uses in coastal zones, as for instance from urbanization which represents one of the most relevant pressure on Mediterranean coastal zones. The study describes different approaches to evaluation of impacts of urbanization on values of coastal landscapes, on the benefits of property owners and of simple users of coastal zones and concludes with suggestions for policy options apt to tackle this challenge. The case study on impacts from maritime transport presents the main findings of a large-scale contingent valuation survey conducted after the Prestige oil spill onto the north-western Spanish coast, considering mainly passive use value lost due to the oil spill and illustrates practical/methodological aspects of the realization of the survey. The case study on impacts from tourist uses of coastal zones represents results from a study on tourist ports based on regional economic accounting methods, concluding that, considering also the indirect impacts of these activities, they might be less profitable than commonly expected. The case study on salinization problems for agriculture in the Dutch delta gives insights on problem structuring within a participatory decision making process. The case study on the risks from maritime activities in the Belgian part of the North Sea illustrates the procedure of risk assessment based on the risks resulting from maritime transport for the Belgian coast where potential impacts on the natural environment can result from collisions, groundings, and other incidents either among ships or with fixed marine structures such as platforms or wind turbines.
Development and implementation of ICZM in EU coastal nations: present status, success factors and promising strategies – evidence from the evaluation of ICZM in Europe
As put into evidence by the recent report of the evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe , the integration between aspects of protection of natural resources and different conflicting interests of coastal uses has only partially been achieved. Conflicts between social and economic interests on the one side and ecosystem goals of conservation and re-naturation of coastal areas on the other still remain substantially unresolved in most national contexts. Frequently, economic interests tend to buy out ecological and social goals, including landscape conservation. In cases where a conciliation between conflicts has been achieved in national strategies, their translation into practical management or planning measures results difficult.
Existing management strategies either disregard the aspects of conservation of coastal and marine natural areas delt with in Theme 7 or, if these goals are addressed, fail in addressing relevant economic and social dimensions of coastal areas, and very often goals of economic development succeed in dominating upon aims of nature conservation. The difficulty of developing holistic and integrated approaches is observed as a shortcoming in most of the national strategies analyzed.
With regards to single relevant impacts, some improvements have been achieved in terms of cross-sectoral interests: for instance, tourism-driven interest on high bathing water quality has successfully succeeded in translating an environmental goal of clean water into an economic one, contributing to an improvement of water quality and soliciting investments for wastewater treatment in some countries. Nevertheless tourism sector results to be, in the Mediterranean area and in Portugal, the main driver of uncontrolled and apparently uncontrollable urbanization increasing the pressure by socio-economic activities on coastal areas.
With regards to tools to be used for the implementation of the EU Recommendation related to the integration of aspects of multifunctionality in coastal zone management practice, the report presented by the working group on Indicators  states that the use of the common assessment framework of indicators is still very fragmentary and that only a few countries and regions have started the data collection on the base of the recommended set of indicators.
Future challenges for integration of multifunctionality in coastal zones
Conflicts in coastal zones, which at present conditions are already difficult to conceal, will only be exacerbated by the consequences of climate change. Coastal zones along with their activities and services that are provided for society will be interested in the consequences of sea level rise, more frequent storm surges and by general impacts of changes in climate such as heat waves, reduced rainfall with all consequences on water resources etc. The challenge of economic assessments and of policies acting on integration between social, economic and natural resources will lay in the support for decision making for adaptation strategies, confronting social, economic and ecologic advantages of alternative adaptation tools, and putting into relationship economic efforts made in terms of mitigation and adaptation with benefits from reduced vulnerability and increased resilience.
The discrepancy between a set of tools which facilitate the integration of different sectoral aspects and the still predominantly sector- oriented management practices in European coastal zones represents a challenge to be considered for future action, although the problem will finding a solution not exclusively on a technical level of new or improved tools but first of all in the field of proactive policies.
A challenge of a different character is represented by the need of adaptation to impacts and the consideration of risks that will be generated by climate change on European coastal zones which is expected to affect generally the opportunities and threats for economic activities in coastal zones. In this context, the evaluation of risks generated by future changes will become an integrated component of future planning activities in coastal zones.
Although throughout recognized as an important issue, integration of aspects deriving from socio-economic pressures into coastal zone management processes is still at its beginning. Strategies and instruments for facilitating integration exist to some extend, but, although approved at a scientific level, they are scarcely used at a day-to-day practice in coastal zone management. The lack of integration of economic and social factors into management strategies and decision making processes seriously hampers good practice in coastal zone management, as conflicts between uses are shifted to the implementation phase, with the risk of strategies and decisions being altered in an uncontrolled manner.
- Evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe – final Report, 2006, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/pdf/evaluation_iczm_report.pdf
- Report on the use of the ICZM indicators from the WG- ID, September 2006; http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2007/com2007_0308en01.pdf
Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.