Coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes and engineering

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Coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes and engineering


This article provides an overview of the Coastal Wiki content (April 2016) on coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes, long term geomorphological change, climate impacts and coastal engineering. This content was initiated by the ENCORA themes 5 and 8.

The article also indicates missing topics (in red). Please help us fill these gaps by expanding and claiming these missing topics.


Articles on modelling : Hydrodynamic modelling , Modelling coastal hydrodynamics , How to apply models , Reduction of uncertainties through Data Model Integration (DMI)

Lacking : introduction to Hydrodynamic processes and equations


See also articles under “Water waves” in the wikipedia

Article Waves introduction to: short waves (types of short waves, wave breaking, wave generation, wave transformation, statistical description of wave parameters, wave climate classification according to wind climate), long waves (surf beat, harbour resonance, seiche, tsunami), infragravity waves, measurement of waves

Lacking: Types of ocean wave - progressive, standing, surface, internal, gravity, capillary, wind wave, swell, tide, planetary or Rossby (coriolis+horiz plane), tsunami, ship waves. Diagram of types of wave, showing the relationships between wavelength, wave frequency, forces and energy.

Lacking: introduction to wave theory: Linear wave theory, Stokes wave theory ( )

Lacking: Non-linear wave theories – introduction to cnoidal, solitary, limits of application ( )

Lacking: introduction to Wind wave generation ( )

Article on wave measurement : Waves and currents by X-band radar

Article on Wave transformation : expansion needed. Background and practical formulas for shoaling, setdown, wave skewness, wave asymmetry, wave breaking, criteria, setup, roller energy, clapotis, models

Lacking : Refraction and diffraction , Wave reflection , Wave-current interaction

Lacking: Swash – swash hydrodynamics and morphodynamics, infiltration, exfiltration, beach berm, wave runup, overtopping

Lacking : Wave impact

Lacking : Ship waves - Wash or wake, Kelvin wave pattern, supercritical wash

Article on Statistical description of wave parameters needs expansion on wave spectrum, Rayleigh distribution, intra-wave interaction

Lacking: Wave modelling - operational, coastal, computational fluid dynamics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Lacking : Infragravity waves , Edge waves - expand definition


Article Tide purely descriptive, needs expansion (see for example )

Article Tidal prediction needs expansion : harmonic method, tidal constituents, specific example

Article Tidal motion in shelf seas

Lacking : Tidal asymmetry – tide propagation in shallow water (coastal water, estuaries), Tidal bore

Lacking : Storm surge - expand definition

Lacking : Tsunami – - expand definition: shoaling, runup


Articles measurement of currents : Waves and currents by X-band radar , Currents and turbulence by acoustic methods, Use of ground based radar in hydrography

Article Currents introduction to currents in the Open Sea (tidal, wind-generated, storm surge), current in the nearshore zone (shore-parallel, shore-normal, undertow, rip currents, cross-currents), two-dimensional currents in the nearshore zone. Expand subtopics, relation with sediment transport.

Expand definitions of Longshore current , Rip currents – processes, practical formulas

More specific articles needed on Wind driven currents (Ekman theory),

Lacking : Density-driven currents

Lacking : articles on Turbulence , Friction

Article Coriolis acceleration

Diffusion, dispersion

Articles Seawater intrusion and mixing in estuaries , Estuarine circulation , Salt wedge estuaries

Expand definition of Stratification – stability criteria, internal waves, Kelvin-Helmholz instability, turbulence damping, internal friction, mixing

Lacking : River plumes

Article on marine mixing and dispersion processes: Suspended particulate matter distribution in the North Sea. Article needed on Transport and mixing processes in shelf seas.

Article on mixing and dispersion in the nearshore : Transport and dispersion of pollutants, nutrients, tracers in mixed nearshore water

Articles on oil spills : Index of vulnerability of littorals to oil pollution , Oil spill monitoring. Articles needed on oil spill transport and dispersion and on oil spill intervention (see also )

Flood risk

Article Chances and risks. Lacking : General article on Flood risk

Lacking : Extreme event - storm surge plus high tide, rainfall, storm waves

Lacking : Extreme event analysis - Gumbel, Weibull distributions, exceedance probability, dependence and joint probability, return period

Lacking : Risk management strategies - cost/benefit, mitigation

Articles Risk and coastal zone policy: example from the Netherlands , Flood risk analysis study at the German Bight Coast


Sediment - update article with links to specific topics

Lacking : Sediment classification - grain size, gravel, sand, boulder, shape, flat, round, type, cohesive, non-cohesive

Article Coastal Hydrodynamics And Transport Processes = introduction to sediment transport in general, onshore and offshore transport and equilibrium coastal profile, transport of non-cohensive sediments

Articles on sediment transport measurement : see Manual Sediment Transport Measurements in Rivers, Estuaries and Coastal Seas with many subtopics

Lacking : Sediment transport processes – processes of settling, sedimentation, erosion and practical formulas

Lacking : Sediment transport formulas - transport by waves, currents, currents + waves, bedload, suspended load, slope effect, lag effects, rippled beds

Lacking : Cross-shore sediment transport - shoaling zone, breaker zone, swash zone

Article on littoral drift Long-term modelling using 1-line models - GENESIS and new extensions , expand and update with recent formulas

Lacking : Boundary layer dynamics – introduction to boundary layer processes (current, waves, current + waves), relation with sediment transport

Lacking : Sediment budget coastal systems

Lacking : Non-cohesive sediment dynamics – graded beds

Lacking : Bed roughness

Article on cohesive sediment dynamics : Dynamics of mud transport

Lacking : Turbidity maximum – introduction to underlying processes (tidal asymmetry, estuarine circulation), impact on sedimentation, water quality

Lacking : Sedimentation of harbours and navigation channels

Lacking : Aeolian transport – from beach to dunes, dune formation


Geomorphology – expand definition to a general article linking to more specific articles

Geomorphological time scales and processes

Classification of coasts

Article Classification of coastlines deals with nearly straight coastlines (with overview of coastal characteristics), special coastal form elements (delta coastlines, sand spits, barrier islands, mechanisms and conditions for barrier island development), barrier formation; effect of development

Articles Classification of coastal profiles, Coastal zone characteristics = introduction to different coastal types

Lacking : Typology coastlines –- accretional, erosional, beaches, estuaries, inlets, deltas, cliffs, mudflats, dunes, stacks, headlands, blowholes,

Rocky shoresRocky shore morphology – expand further to cliff morphology, sediment input, shore platforms, stacks, headlands, etc.

Lacking : Wave dominated coast - barriers, beaches, breaker bars, intertidal bars and runnels

Lacking : Fluvial dominated coast , River deltas

Article Gravel Beaches

Article Characteristics of muddy coasts . Lacking : Mud coasts – physical processes of mud coasts such as Guinana


Lacking : Estuary geomorphology - classification of estuaries - stratified, well-mixed, salt-wedge, flood-dom, ebb-dom, bar-built, rias, fjiords (Estuaries and tidal rivers incomplete)

Lacking : Estuarine hydrodynamics and modelling

Lacking : Estuarine morphodynamics – planform, equilibrium hypsometry, tidal flats, alternating bars, channel meandering, channel bifurcation

Lacking : Estuary response to change - long-term morphological evolution, response to sea-level rise and direct human interventions (dredging, reclamation)

Article Case studies: Long term predictions for estuaries

Lacking : Ebb-tidal deltas - morphodynamics

Article Mudflat - expand existing definition, mudflat morphology and morphodynamics (interaction morphology-tide-waves-biology), link to saltmarsh morphology

Articles on Salt marshes , Dynamics, threats and management of salt marshes , Salt marshes in Europe and temporal variability

Article Mangroves

Coastal morphodynamics

Lacking: Coastal barriers - coastal barrier formation

Articles on morphodynamic modelling and analysis: Process-based morphological models , Data-driven models and statistical approaches , Geomorphological analysis , Behaviour-based models , Stochastic and fractal methods in coastal morphodynamics

Articles on morphological survey methods : Bathymetry from inverse wave refraction , Data processing and output of Lidar

Lacking : Rhythmic shoreline features – introduction to features and formation conditions of beach cusps, rip current embayments and cuspate shorelines, crescentic bars, welded and transverse bars, large-scale capes and erosional embayments, links to specific articles

Article on morphodynamic feedback processes : Stability models

Articles on shoreline profile dynamics: Equilibrium profile , Parametric equilibrium models , Process-based modelling

Articles on shoreline modelling : Long-term modelling using 1-line models - GENESIS and new extensions , Process-based modelling

Lacking : Coastal profile response to storms – profile steepening, breaker bar dynamics (migration, formation)

Lacking : Shoreline planform – pocket beach equilibrium planform (see Parametric equilibrium models), shoreline rotation

Bedforms - expand definition to full article on wave generated, tidally generated bedforms: ripples, megaripples, bars, dunes, sandwaves, tidal ridges, shoreface-connected ridges. Expand subtopics: large scale, small scale.

Lacking : Beach cusp - morphodynamics

Lacking : Beach berm – expand definition and add section on berm formation

Lacking : Beach-dune interaction – dune accretion, aeolian transport

Lacking : Reef systems

Coastal erosion

Articles on shoreline observation: Argus image types and conventions Argus video monitoring system Argus applications Argus video

Article on Data analysis and Statistical Approaches

Lacking : Shoreline prediction – prediction of shoreline response to storms

Article on coastal erosion processes : Types and background of coastal erosion

Articles Bruun rule , Closure depth

Articles Human causes of coastal erosion , Accretion and erosion for different coastal types , Typical examples of structural erosion

Article Natural causes of coastal erosion

Article Dune erosion

Long-term morphodynamics and climate change

Lacking : Sea level change - indications of former sea levels, causes of sea level change, pleistocene, holocene, present, future, isostacy and eustacy, tectonics, climate change

Lacking : Quaternary geology - glaciology, case studies, saltmarsh climate change dating

Climate change - extend existing definition to general introduction

Articles on climate change impacts : Effect of climate change on coastline evolution , Potential Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Mangroves. Lacking is a general article Climate change impacts with links to more specific articles, and to articles on sea level change

Lacking : Geomorphological modelling at geological time scale

Lacking : Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

Lacking : ICZM issues associated with long term geomorphology

Coastal engineering

General articles on coastal engineering : Hard shoreline protection structures , Protection against coastal erosion , Hard structures and structural erosion , Sand by-pass systems

Articles on specific hard structures : Groynes, Groynes as shore protection , Deteriorated groynes , Detached breakwaters , Detached shore parallel breakwaters , Application of breakwaters , Floating breakwaters , Perched beaches , Seawalls and revetments , Overtopping resistant dikes

Articles on Soft shoreline protection solutions , Artificial reefs , Natural barriers , Dynamics, threats and management of biogenic reefs

Articles on Beach nourishment , Artificial nourishment ,

Articles on Shore nourishment , Experiences with beach nourishments in Portugal Lacking: Experience with coastal nourishment in the Netherlands

Article Beach drainage

Articles on dune management : Sand dune types - Europe , Dynamics, threats and management of dunes

Lacking : Coastal defence options - UK MAFF guidelines, do nothing, risk management, sustain, change

Lacking : Resonance phenomena - dealing with seiches in harbours and basins

Dredging – expand definition with overview article of techniques and impact. Case study Coastal Erosion along the Changjiang Deltaic Shoreline

Lacking : Disposal of dredged materials – including fate of dredged materials

Lacking : Sand mining – including marine aggregates

Lacking : Estuary engineering - deepening and channelisation of estuaries, tidal flat reclamation, impacts, coastal squeeze, managed realignment

Lacking : Tidal power

Article on marine wind farms : Offshore wind farm development in Germany . Needs general article Marine wind energy and update of case studies

Articles on wave energy : Wave energy converters Wave energy converters in coastal structures