Coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes and engineering

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(Doorverwezen vanaf Theme 5 gap filling project)
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Introduction

This article presents an overview of the Coastal Wiki content (July 2017) on coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes, long term geomorphological change, climate impacts and coastal engineering (articles in blue). This content was initiated by the ENCORA themes 5 and 8.

The article also indicates missing topics (articles in red). Please help us fill these gaps by expanding and claiming these missing topics.

For some gaps alternative websites are indicated, in particular:


Coastal hydrodynamics

Coastal Wiki articles

Coastal Wiki gap

  • Hydrodynamic processes and equations - introduction to the mathematical formulation of major physical processes that should be addressed in models for different types of coastal systems (sediment transport formulas are addressed in other articles)


Waves

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Wind wave generation – introduction to underlying processes, fetch, saturated wave field, wave-wave interaction, wave spectrum
  • Wave transformation in the nearshore - introduction to propagation of random waves into shallow water, wave breaking and dissipation mechanisms, breaking criteria, roller energy, wave asymmetry and skewness, cnoidal waves, solitary waves, observations, empirical formulas, models
  • Surf zone dynamics – impact of Wave transformation in the nearshore on nearshore morphology
  • Wave-current interaction
  • Tsunamis - introduction to tsunami generation, propagation, shoaling, runup, dissipation, modelling, observations, empirical formulas
  • Wave impact – stability of structures under wave attack
  • Ship waves - wash or wake, Kelvin wave pattern, supercritical wash
  • Wave modelling - operational, coastal, computational fluid dynamics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics


External references


Tides

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Tides needs revision
  • Tidal prediction needs expansion : harmonic method, tidal constituents, specific examples
  • Storm surge definition needs expansion: storm surge prediction, storm surge modelling, storm surge impact


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Tides in the oceans
  • Tidal asymmetry – introduction to tidal topographically induced wave distortion in shallow coastal systems
  • Tidal bores- introduction to tidal wave propagation in shallow water, bore development and propagation/dissipation, bore types, relation with channel geometry and bed roughness, observations, modelling, practical formulas, implications for sediment transport


External references


Currents

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Longshore current – definition needs expansion: generation of longshore currents, theory, practical formulas
  • Rip currents - definition needs expansion: introduction to characteristics of rip-cells, their importance, occurrence, hydrodynamics, morphodynamic feedbacks, influence of tides, storms, modelling, practical formulas, implications for coastal management


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Wind driven currents – sea surface entrainment, turbulence, Ekman theory
  • Density-driven currents – buoyancy, stratification, turbulence damping, entrainment, modelling
  • Turbulence – generation, coherent flow structures, dissipation, Kolmogorov theory, spectrum, shear stress, diffusion, mixing length


Transport and mixing processes

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Stratification – needs expansion: stability criteria, internal waves, Kelvin-Helmholz instability, turbulence damping, internal friction, mixing


Coastal Wiki gaps


External references


Flood risk

Coastal Wiki articles


Coastal Wiki gaps


Coastal sediments and sediment transport

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Sediment - needs update with links to specific topics


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Sediment classification - grain size, gravel, sand, boulder, shape, flat, round, type, cohesive, non-cohesive
  • Graded beds – sorting processes, seabed armouring, erosion, deposition, modelling
  • Sediment budget coastal systems
  • Boundary layer processes and sediment transport - introduction to the boundary layer concept (waves, current, waves+current), turbulence, temporal-spatial scales, bed-flow interaction, velocity and acceleration skewness, flat/rippled/sloping beds, sediment transport processes, onshore-offshore asymmetry, observation, modelling, practical formulas
  • Current ripples and dunes – formation processes, theoretical background, modelling
  • Cross-shore sediment transport - shoaling zone, breaker zone, swash zone
  • Aeolian transport – from beach to dunes, influence of grainsize, fetch, tides, moisture, vegetation, dune formation, modelling
  • Estuarine sedimentation and turbidity maximum - introduction to characteristics of turbidity maxima, underlying processes (tidal asymmetry, estuarine circulation), impact on sedimentation and water quality, conditions of occurrence, relation with dredging and reclamation in estuaries, observations, modelling


External references


Coastal morphology

Wave-dominated coasts

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Rocky shore morphology – needs expansion to cliff morphology, sediment input, shore platforms, stacks, headlands, etc.
  • Beach berm – expand definition and add section on berm formation


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Typology of coastlines – introduction to different coastline classification schemes, accretional, erosional coasts, beaches, estuaries, inlets, deltas, cliffs, mudflats, dunes, stacks, headlands, blowholes
  • Wave-dominated coast general introduction: barriers, beaches, breaker bars, intertidal bars and runnels
  • Macrotidal coasts - introduction to: characteristics of macrotidal coasts (compared to micro- or mesotidal coasts), variability, major involved hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes, resilience, response to sea-level rise
  • Mud coasts (or Fluvial-dominated coasts ) - introduction to the particular characteristics of mud coasts (compared to sand coasts) and the processes responsible for their formation, evolution and maintenance, threats and response to sea-level rise
  • Typology of mangrove coasts – morphological-ecological interaction
  • Equilibrium coastal profile – empirical models, theoretical background, applicability
  • Coastal barrier formation - introduction to characteristics of coastal barriers, their importance, processes responsible for their formation, evolution and maintenance, threats to existing coastal barriers (human interventions and sea-level rise), good management practices
  • Breaker bar dynamics – development, evolution and decay of breaker bars in the surf zone, underlying morphodynamic processes and modelling
  • Coastal profile response to storms – profile steepening, breaker bar dynamics (migration, formation)
  • Shoreline planform – pocket beach equilibrium planform, shoreline rotation
  • Beach-dune interaction - introduction to major processes of coastal dune formation and erosion, and practical modelling concepts
  • Reef systems


External references


Deltas, estuaries and lagoons

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Estuaries and tidal rivers – introduction to different types of estuaries
  • Mudflat – needs expansion of existing definition, mudflat morphology and morphodynamics (interaction morphology-tide-waves-biology), link to saltmarsh morphology
  • Salt marsh morphodynamics – typical salt marsh morphologies, introduction to underlying physical feedback processes (interaction waves, tide with morphology)
  • Fjords – definition needs to be expanded: formation process, hydrodynamics
  • Coastal squeeze – article must be revised and expanded: introduction to the concept of coastal squeeze, influential factors, how does it happen, consequences, examples, how to avoid, how to mitigate, lessons from practice
  • Characteristics of muddy coasts - needs revision and expansion to include wave influence and interactions ecology-hydrodynamics-morphology.


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Rias – definition, impact of geological constraints on hydrodynamics and morphodynamics
  • Tidal lagoons – evolution, morphodynamics
  • Tide-dominated river deltas - introduction to characteristics of tidal deltas with high liquid and solid river discharge, major processes for their formation, evolution and maintenance, resilience and threats, response to sea-level rise
  • Ebb-tidal deltas – tide- and wave-driven morphodynamics, interaction with tidal basin morphodynamics
  • Estuarine morphodynamics – morphodynamic feedback, equilibrium planform, equilibrium hypsometry, tidal flats, alternating bars, channel meandering, channel bifurcation
  • Estuary response to sea-level rise
  • Estuary channelization - impact on hydrodynamics, salt intrusion, sedimentation, turbidity, field cases, modelling
  • Tidal flat reclamation – morphodynamic response, consequences for physical and ecological processes in estuaries and options for restoration
  • ICZM issues in estuaries
  • Bio-geomorphology of salt marshes – landscape dynamics of salt marshes resulting from the interaction between biotic and physical processes


External references


Coastal morphology measuring techniques

Coastal Wiki articles


Coastal morphodynamic modelling and self-organisation

Coastal Wiki articles


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Coastline instability - introduction to conditions for coastline instability, occurrence, characteristics of unstable coastlines, observations, processes, morphodynamic feedback, modelling, practical formulas, implications for coastal management
  • Morphodynamic selforganisation processes – principles of self-organisation and examples
  • Nearshore bed forms and bed roughness - introduction to the physical background and practical methods for representing the influence of bed forms and bed roughness in the nearshore zone in numerical models of waves, currents, mixing and sediment transport
  • Sand waves - introduction to characteristics of sand waves, their practical importance, conditions and major (feedback)processes for their formation, evolution and maintenance, modelling, some examples and simple rules
  • Bio-geomorphology of the coastal zone – morphological and ecological patterns in the coastal zone resulting from the interaction between biotic and physical processes


Coastal erosion

Coastal Wiki articles


Coastal Wiki gaps

  • Shoreline prediction – practical (data-driven) methods, applicability, storms, implication for coastal management
  • Decadal coastal prediction - introduction to (data-driven) methods for predicting coastal evolution over decadal time scale


External references


Long-term morphodynamics and climate change

Coastal Wiki articles


Incomplete articles

  • Geomorphology – needs expansion to a general article linking to more specific articles
  • Climate change - extend existing definition to general introduction to the topic


Coastal Wiki gaps


Coastal protection and engineering


Incomplete articles

  • Dredging needs expansion with overview article of techniques and impact


Coastal Wiki gaps


External references