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Studies on distribution and ecology of Clithon retropictus (Martens, 1879) in South Korea
Han, S.P.; Hwang, I.C.; Kwon, S.J. (2021). Studies on distribution and ecology of Clithon retropictus (Martens, 1879) in South Korea. Journal of Wetlands Research 23(4): 317-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.17663/JWR.2021.23.4.317
In: Journal of Wetlands Research. Korean Wetlands Society: Korea. ISSN 1229-6031; e-ISSN 2384-0056, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Clithon retropictus [sic] [WoRMS]
    Brackish water
Author keywords
    Clithon retropictus (Martens, 1879); Brackish water zone; Distribution; Moving distance; Salinity; Substratum

Authors  Top 
  • Han, S.P.
  • Hwang, I.C.
  • Kwon, S.J.

Abstract
    The present study was carried out with a view to understand the distribution and ecology of Clihton retropictus (Martens, 1879), a class II endangered wildlife designated and protected by the Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea, and to suggest the effective conservation and management measures for this species and its habit. First, the distribution of Clihton retropictus was investigated nationwide, and environmental factors such as salinity and substratum were analyzed in consideration of the ecological characteristics of this species. In addition, the individual size, density, and movement of Clihton retropictus per each district surveyed were analyzed. Due to its nature of inhabiting in the brackish water zone, the analysis showed that the salinity of this species was 0.7 ~ 16.6‰ at low tide and 1.0 ~ 17.3% at high tide. It was learned from the analysis of substratum that its composition in each river under investigation was slightly different, but most of substratum had a higher composition ratio than gravel (pebble, 16 ~ 64 mm). On the other hand, the size of each individual was checked by measuring the length of its diameter, and there was almost no change in the individual when the inhabited range of Clihton retropictus was short. However, there was tendency that the longer the habitat range, the bigger the individual size. From surveying the population density by season, it was made clear that, during the summer (July to August) and fall (September to October), the density was relatively higher while the number of individuals decreased significantly during winter (November to December) when the water temperature was lowered. In an effort to effectively establish conservation and management measures, the moving distance was measured, and it became known that, during the surveys in summer and fall when the individuals were active, the individuals moved in more distances than during the winter survey. The results of this study are expected to be utilized as basic data for establishing effective management plans such as creation of habitats for Clihton retropictus, its migration projects and selection of migration destinations which get unavoidable due to development projects.

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