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Developmental mode and species geographic range in regular sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)
Emlet, R.B. (1995). Developmental mode and species geographic range in regular sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Evolution 49(3): 476-489.
In: Evolution. Society for the Study of Evolution: Lancaster. ISSN 0014-3820; e-ISSN 1558-5646, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Developmental time, dispersal, egg size, larvae, planktonic interval, planktotrophy, Q1o.

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  • Emlet, R.B.

    Among marine benthic organisms, the ability to disperse, primarily during the larval stage, is widely thought to influence the extent of species geographic range. Because related species often differ in their modes of larval development (pelagic, feeding larvae; pelagic, nonfeeding larvae; or brooded development), and these can have dramatically different planktonic intervals, the mode of development may influence geographic range. A global survey of 215 regular echinoids shows that species with pelagic, feeding larvae have significantly larger ranges than those with pelagic, nonfeeding larvae, but there is no difference in ranges between species with pelagic, nonfeeding larvae and those with brooded development. These patterns are maintained within the Cidaroida and the Temnopleuroida, which account for the great majority of species with pelagic, nonfeeding development and brooded development. This limited effect of developmental mode on geographic range is found among species occurring predominantly in waters shallower than 100 m. For species occurring deeper than 100 m, there is no significant difference in geographic range related to type of development. The relationship between developmental mode and species range was examined more closely for circa 30 species for which the developmental period was known from laboratory observations. Adjusting the developmental times to a common temperature, 20°C, using realistic values for Q10 from 2.0 to 3.6, showed a highly significant, negative correlation between egg volume and developmental time, indicating the potential for developmental mode to influence the planktonic interval. However, there was no relationship between time in the plankton, estimated from unadjusted developmental times, and extent of species geographic range. These results suggest that developmental mode may influence extent of species geographic ranges indirectly through the consequences of dispersal for gene flow or recovery from disturbance.

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