The daily resolved temperature dependence and structure of planktonic foraminifera blooms
Chernihovsky, N.; Almogi-Labin, A; Kienast, S.S.; Torfstein, A. (2020). The daily resolved temperature dependence and structure of planktonic foraminifera blooms. NPG Scientific Reports 10(1): 12 pp. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74342-z
Planktonic foraminifera (PF) life cycles are highly sensitive to marine conditions, which are evolving rapidly due to anthropogenic climate change. Even though PF shells in the sedimentary record serve as prominent proxies of past ocean conditions, very little is still known about their life cycles, particularly in oligotrophic environments. Here, we present a full annual record of PF fluxes (> 63 µm) from the oligotrophic Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea, sampled at daily timescales during 2015–2016 using an automated time-series sediment trap. These results are coupled with daily surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), particulate organic carbon and bulk fluxes, together with monthly resolved vertical profiles of chlorophyll-a, temperatures and nutrient concentrations. The annual cycle of PF fluxes is controlled by SST changes that drive water column mixing and changes in food availability. PF species flux patterns and succession dynamics vary throughout the year, displaying large variability on previously undocumented daily-weekly timescales, and are not synchronized with lunar periodicity. On daily timescales, spring blooms show a complex structure and interplay between SSTs, chlorophyll-a surface concentrations and PF fluxes. These events deliver about a third of the total annual PF flux over a period of several weeks.