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(1) An increase in the supply of organic matter.
(3) The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially nitrogen and/or phosphorus and organic matter, causing an increased growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an unacceptable deviation in structure, function and stability of organisms present in the water and to the quality of water concerned, compared to reference conditions.
- ↑ Nixon, S. W. (1995) Coastal marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia, 41, 199–219.[ISI]
- ↑ HELCOM webpage, 2006 
- ↑ Andersen, J. H., Schlüter, L. and Ærtebjerg, G. (2006) Coastal eutrophication: recent developments in definitions and implications for monitoring strategies. J. Plankton Res. 28(7): 621-628.