References for environmental risk assessment

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Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems - CETS (1998). Review of the Prince William Sound, Alaska, Risk Assessment Study. National Academy Press, http://www.nap.edu ISBN 0-309-06078-8, Washington, USA

Convention on biological Diversity (1992).

Cooper, J.A.G. & McLaughlin, S. (1998). Contemporary multidisciplinary approaches to coastal classification and environmental risk analysis. Journal of Coastal Research, 14(2), 512-524.

Covello, V.T. & Merkhofer, M.W. (1993). Risk Assessment Methods Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks. Plenum, New York

DEFRA (2000). Guidelines for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs, UK. Available here

Degraer, S., Van Lancker, V., Moerkerke, G., Van Hoey, G., Vanstaen, K., Vincx, M. & Henriet, J.-P. (2003). Evaluation of the ecological value of the foreshore: habitatmodel and macrobenthic side-scan sonar interpretation: extension along the Belgian Coastal Zone. Final report. Ministry of the Flemish Community, Environment and Infrastructure Department. Waterways and Marine Affairs Administration, Coastal Waterways, 63 p.

Degraer, S., Van Lancker, V., Moerkerke, G., Vincx, M., Jacobs, P. & Henriet, J.-P. (2002). Intensive evaluation of the evolution of a protected benthic habitat: HABITAT. Final report. Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs (OSTC), Ministry of the Flemish Community (WWK). Universiteit Gent, Gent, 124 p.

EC DG TREN (2000a). Concerted Action on Formal Safety and Environmental Assessment of Ship Operations – Final Summary Report. Main project contractor: Germanischer Lloyd on behalf of EEIG Unitas. Project in the EU 4th Framework Programme, Waterborne Transport. Website

EC DG TREN (2000b). SAFECO II – Safety of Shipping in Coastal Waters: Demonstration of risk assessment techniques for communication and information exchange. Final Report for publication. Main project contractor : Det Norske Veritas Project in the EU 4th Framework Programme, Waterborne Transport. Website

ECB (2003). Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. European Chemicals Bureau – Institute for Health and Consumer Protection. European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Available here

ECOTOC (2001). Risk Assessment in Marine Environments. Technical Report No. 82. ISSN -0773- 8072-82. European Centre For Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Brussels.

EPA (1998). Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (EPA/630/R-95/002F) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

European Centre For Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals - ECOTOC (2001). Risk Assessment in Marine Environments. Technical Report No. 82. ISSN -0773- 8072-82. Brussels European Commission (2000). Opinion on the available scientific approaches to assess the potential effects and risk of chemicals on terrestrial ecosystems. Scientific committee on toxicity, ecotoxicity and the environment (cstee). Available here

European Commission (2002). Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment for Birds and Mammals Under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (working document).

Fairman R., Mead C. D. & Williams W. P. (1999). Environmental Risk Assessment – Approaches, Experiences and Information Sources. Monitoring and Assessment Research centre, King’s College, London. Published by European Environment Agency – EEA Environmental issue report No 4. http://reports.eea.eu.int/GH-07-97-595-EN-C2/en/riskindex.html

Falco, J.W. and Moraski, R.V. (1989). Assessment of ecological risks related to chemical exposure: methods and strategies used in the US. In: Risk Management of Chemicals in Environment, H.M. Seip and A.B. Heiberg (Eds). NATO Chalelnges of Modern Society Series Vol. 12, Plenum Press, New York Fifth International Conference on the protection of the North Sea. Webpage available 19/08/2005. http://www.dep.no/md/html/conf/ecosyst/ecosystem_approach.html

Gilbert, T. (2002). Geographic information systems based tools for marine pollution response. Port Technology International, 13, 25-27.

International Maritime Organization – IMO (2002). Guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for use in the IMO rule-making process. MSC/Circ. 1023- MEPC/Circ.392, 5 April 2002 Le Roy, D., Volckaert, A, Vermoote, S., De Wachter, B., Maes, F., Coene, J. and Calewaert, JB. (2006). Risk analysis of marine activities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea (RAMA). Research in the framework of the BELSPO Global change, ecosystems and biodiversity – SPSDII, April 2006, 107 pp + Annexes.

Lenting, V. & Pratt, C. (2000). The New Zealand marine oil spill risk assessment 1998. New Zealand Petroleum Conference Proceedings, Auckland, New Zealand.

MacDonald, A., McGeehan, C., Cain, M., Beattie, J., Holt, H., Zhou, R. & Farquhar, D. (1999). Identification of Marine Environmental High Risk Areas (MEHRA's) in the UK. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, ST-87639-MI-1-Rev 01, London, UK.

Maes, F., Douvere, F. & Schrijvers, J. (2002). Marine Resources Damage Assessment and Sustainable Management of the North Sea (MARE DASM), Research project commissioned by DWTC, 694 pp.

Maes, F., Schrijvers, J., Van Lancker, V., Verfaillie, E., Degraer, S., Derous, S., De Wachter, B., Volckaert, A., Vanhulle, A., Vandenabeele, P., Cliquet, A., Douvere, F., Lambrecht, J. and Makgill, R. (2005). Towards a spatial structure plan for sustainable management of the sea. Research in the framework of the BSP programme "Sustainable Management of the Sea" – PODO II, June 2005, pp. 539. Maritime and Coastguard Agency – MCA (2003). Formal Safety Assessment – Risk Methodology, FSA methodology and representation of uncertainty in Step 2 Methodology. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/fsa/risk.htm

Morris and& R. Therivel (ed.). Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment. UCL Press, London. National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-05396-X. Washington, D.C. 1996. Stienen, E.W.M. & Kuijken, E. (2003). Het belang van de Belgische zeegebieden voor zeevogels. Rapport Instituut voor Natuurbehoud, 2003.208. Instituut voor Natuurbehoud: Brussel, België, 33 pp.

NOAA (2002). Environmental Sensitivity Index Mapping. Available here (accessed 26-08-2005) Rempec (Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea) (2000). IMO/UNEP: Regional Information System, Part D, Operational Guides and Technical Documents, Section 1, Guide for Combating Adccidental Marine Pollution in the Mediterranean, 137 pp.

Seys, J. (2001). Sea-and Coastal bird data as tools in the policy and management of Belgian marine waters. Proefschrift Universiteit Gent, Gent, 130 pp.

Stern P. C. & Fineberg H. V. (eds.) (1996). Understanding Risk – Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Committee on Risk Characterization, Commission on Behavioural and Social Sciences and Education – National Research Council.

Strange, E., Lipton, J, Beltman D., and Snyder B. (2002). Scientific and Societal Considerations in Selecting Assessment Endpoints for Environmental Decision Making. Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact Symposium 2001, TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 2(S1), 12-20.

Suter, G.W. (1993) Ecological Risk Assessment. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. 2. U.S. EPA (1998) Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment.

Tortell, P. (1992). Coastal zone sensitivity mapping and its role in marine environmental management. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25(1-4), 88-93.

Villa, F. & McLeod, H. (2002). Environmental vulnerability indicators for environmental planning and decision-making: guidelines and applications. Environmental Management, 29(3), 335-348.

Wilcox R. LT., Burrows M. CDR., Ghosh S., Ayyub B. M. (2000). Risk-based Technology for the Safety Assessment of Marine Compressed Natural Gas Fuel Systems. International Cooperation on Marine Engineering Systems/The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Paper presented at the 8th ICMES/SNAME New York Metropolitan Section Symposium in New York, May 22-23, 2000.

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