Williams, S.T. (2007). Origins and diversification of Indo-West Pacific marine
fauna: evolutionary history and biogeography of turban shells (Gastropoda, Turbinidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 92, 573–592.
Williams, S. T.
Origins and diversification of Indo-West Pacific marine
fauna: evolutionary history and biogeography of turban shells (Gastropoda, Turbinidae
The present study aimed to assess the consequences of tectonic events and temperature regime on the diversification of Indo-West Pacific (IWP) turban shell species. Bayesian and parsimony methods were used to construct a phylogenetic hypothesis using sequence data from three genes for the turban shell genus Turbo and for a larger data set including representatives of all known genera in the subfamily Turbininae. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all IWP Turbo species form a single clade approximately 68 Myr in age, predating the closure of the Tethys Sea and therefore predating the physical separation of the IWP from other biogeographical regions. All but one of the IWP subgenera tested in Turbo also predate the closure of the Tethys Sea. Fossil evidence for Marmarostoma, the largest subgenus, confirms that at least some Turbo lineages currently restricted to the IWP were previously more widespread. The combination of the phylogeny with the fossil evidence suggests that present day diversity in IWP Turbo is the result of the evolutionary persistence within the IWP of several, morphologically distinct lineages, some of which were more widespread in the Oligocene. Some IWP lineages show significant increases in diversification in the early Miocene, probably as a result of the increased availability of both shallow-water habitats due to tectonic plate movements and increased carbonate platforms in the central IWP resulting from coincident diversification of zooxanthellate corals. The IWP is therefore behaving as both a cradle of diversity (with new species originating in situ) and a museum of diversity (with lineages that predate its isolation also being maintained). Bayesian and parsimony analyses of the subfamily recovered five clades and mapping the temperature regime (tropical or temperate) of each species onto the molecular tree using parsimony suggested that temperate habitat is an ancestral character in at least four of the clades. This result was also supported by Bayesian reconstruction of ancestral states. Astralium (the fifth clade) may also prove to have a temperate origin, but this could not be determined with certainty given the available data. The origin of diversity in tropical regions is of particular interest because it has been suggested that the tropics are the source of many evolutionary novelties and have provided a species pool, from which temperate regions were populated. The present study suggests that Turbininae may be an exception to this rule. The tree shape also suggests that temperature has had an effect on speciation rates; temperate Turbininae are apparently evolving more slowly or suffering more extinction than their tropical sister clades, which show greater diversity.