|The ecology of marine benthic hydroids|
Gili, J.-M.; Hughes, R.G. (1995). The ecology of marine benthic hydroids. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 33: 351-426
In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press/Allen & Unwin: London. ISSN 0078-3218, more
|Authors|| || Top |
The ecology of hydroids has received increasing attention in the past 20 years or so, despite several difficulties in such studies. This review covers the following topics. Morphology and phenotypic variations in morphology caused by feeding regimes, water movement, pollutants and temperature; feeding biology, including food capture, digestion, and structural adaptations to enhance the success of suspension feeding; respiration rates and energy budgets; life histories,including their life spans, mortality rates and the possibility of immortality, growth strategies and rates; sexual and asexual reproduction; seasonal cycles of abundance and dormancy; factors affecting distribution including dispersal behaviour, water movements, exposure to air and pollutants; interspecific associations, with hydroids as epiphytes and epizoites and as hosts to other organisms. The potential ecological importance of hydroids, particularly their role in transfer of energy from the plankton to the benthos, is also discussed.