|Recent invasions of the Gulf of Maine: three constrasting ecological histories|
|Berman, J.; Harris, L.; Lambert, W.; Buttrick, M.; Dufresne, M. (1992). Recent invasions of the Gulf of Maine: three constrasting ecological histories. Conserv. Biol. 6: 435-441|
|In: Conservation Biology. Wiley: Cambridge. ISSN 0888-8892, more|
Benthic environment; Ecological balance; Evaluation; Interspecific relationships; Introduced species; Invasions; ; ANW, USA, Maine Gulf [gazetteer]; Marine
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This paper examines the invasion of Gulf of Maine benthic habitats by the ecologically similar alien invertebrates Styela clava, Botryllodies diegensis , and Membranipora membranacea . Styela cyava increased slowly in abundance at study sites in Beverly, Massachusetts and Portsmouth, New Hampshire. We found no evidence of competitive dominance by S. Clava , even though it is the competitive dominant in similar habitats elsewhere. Botrylloides diegensis rapidly became a dominant species after its arrival in the Great Bay Estuary, but this dominance was short-lived. B. Diegensis persists in the estuary as an early colonist of primary space and as an epibiont on secondary substrates in established communities. Membranipora membranacea became the dominant epiphyte on laminarian kelps within two years. Although M. Membranacea overgrew the native epiphytes Obelia geniculata and Electra pilosa in the overwhelming majority of encounters, these native species are more common on other algal hosts.