|Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in temperate areas of the Northern hemisphere|
|Hamel, J.-F.; Mercier, A. (2008). Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in temperate areas of the Northern hemisphere, in: Toral-Granda, V. et al. (Ed.) (2008). Sea Cucumbers, a global review of fisheries and trade. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 516: pp. 257-291|
|In: Toral-Granda, V.; Lovatelli, A.; Vasconcellos, M. (Ed.) (2008). Sea Cucumbers, a global review of fisheries and trade. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 516. FAO: Rome, Italy. ISBN 978-92-5-106079-7. 317 pp., meer|
|In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. FAO/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome. ISSN 2070-7010, meer|
Data on sea cucumber fisheries in the temperate northern hemisphere are mainly available for four countries (Canada, United States of America, Russian Federation and Iceland), and commercial harvests are centered on four species (Parastichopus californicus, P. parvimensis, Cucumaria frondosa and C. japonica). Both Parastichopus species are primarly exploited by divers at a scale that is similar to what occurs elsewhere (e.g. tropical Indo-Pacific regions). However, harvests of the Cucumaria species typically involve industrialized processes (i.e. fishing boats, specialized trawls and processing plants). While Parastichopus fisheries date back to the early 1970s, most fisheries of Cucumaria are fairly new, and most of them are still in the exploratory phase, especially in Canada. The present document outlines the biological and population status, the current catches, the management measures in place, the socio-economic importance of the sea cucumber resources, the current research associated with these fisheries and the threats they may be facing.