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Combined effects of salinity, temperature, and copper on embryos and early larvae of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica
MacInnes, J.R.; Calabrese, A. (1979). Combined effects of salinity, temperature, and copper on embryos and early larvae of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8(5): 553-562
In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer: New York. ISSN 0090-4341, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Copper; Environmental effects; Larvae; Pollution effects; Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • MacInnes, J.R.
  • Calabrese, A.

Abstract
    The response of embryos and larvae of C. virginica to copper at various salinity-temperature regimes was studied in the laboratory using response surface methods and factorial analysis. The experimental design was a 3 x 3 x 4 factorial experiment using temperatures of 20, 25, and 30° C, and salinities of 17.5, 22.5, and 27.5 0/00 . It was carried out at copper concentratons of 0, 5, 10, and 20 ppb for the embryos and 0, 30, 60, and 90 ppb for the larvae. Salinity had the greatest effect on the embryos at 0, 5, and 10 ppb copper, but temperature had as great an effect as that of salinity at 20 ppb copper. The capacity of the embryos to adapt to the temperature-salinity changes was impaired when exposed to 20 ppb copper, as indicated by the shifting of the response center. Temperature had the greatest effect on the larvae when exposed to 30, 60, and 90 ppb copper. The interaction between temperature and salinity was significant only at the higher levels of copper. Low levels of copper may produce intolerable stress upon the recruitment of oyster embryos during periods of persistently low salinities and low or high temperatures.

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