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Bed load transport on the shoreface by currents and waves
Kleinhans, M.; Grasmeijer, B.T. (2006). Bed load transport on the shoreface by currents and waves. : 983-996

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Keywords
    Bed load; Continental shelves; Sediment transport; Wave climate; Marine

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  • Kleinhans, M., more
  • Grasmeijer, B.T.

Abstract
    Tide-driven bed load transport is an important portion of the net annual sediment transport rate in many shoreface and shelf environments. However, bed load transport under waves cannot be measured in the field and bed load transport by currents without waves is barely measurable, even in spring tidal conditions. There is, consequently, a strong lack of field data and validated models. The present field site was on the shorefaceand inner shelf at 2 to 8.5 km offshore the central Dutch coast (far outside the surfzone), where tidal currents flow parallel to the coast. Bed load transports were carefully measured with a calibrated sampler in spring tidal conditions without waves at a water depth of 13-18 m with fine and medium sands. The near-bed flow was measured over nearly a year and used for integration to annual transport rates. An empirical bed load modelwas derived, which predicts bed load transports that are a factor of N5 smaller than predicted by existing models. However, they agree with laboratory data of sand and gravel transport in currents near incipient motion. The damped transport rates may have been caused by cohesion of sediment or turbulence damping due to mud or biological activity. The annual bed load transport rate was calculated using a probability densityfunction (pdf) derived from the near-bed current and orbital velocity data which represented the current and wave climate well when compared to 30 years of data from a nearby wave station. The effect of wave stirring was included in the transport calculations. The net bed load transport rate is a few m2/year. This is much less than predicted in an earlier model study, which is partly due to different bed load models but also due to thedifference in velocity pdf. The annual transport rate is very sensitive to the probability of the largest current velocities.

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