|The fate and effect of petroleum in controlled ecosystem enclosures|
Lee, R.F.; Takahashi, M. (1977). The fate and effect of petroleum in controlled ecosystem enclosures. Rapp. et Proc.-Verb. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 171: 150-156
In: Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer: Copenhagen. ISSN 0074-4336, more
|Also published as |
- Lee, R.F.; Takahashi, M. (1977). The fate and effect of petroleum in controlled ecosystem enclosures, in: McIntyre, A.D. et al. (Ed.) (1977). Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment: Proceedings from ICES Workshop held in Aberdeen 9-12 September 1975. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 171: pp. 150-156, more
Ecosystems; Hydrocarbons; Oil pollution; Marine
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Water extracts of No. 2 fuel oil were added to CEPEX enclosures during August 1974 and June 1975. The approximate initial concentrations of nonvolatile hydrocarbons in 1974 were 10 and 20 µg/litre in two enclosures. At the lower concentration no major effects on phytoplankton or zooplankton were apparent. The 20 µg/litre enclosure had a small bloom of the microflagellate, Chrysochromulina kappa, and the growth of a laboratory culture of this flagellate was stimulated by water extracts of fuel oil (Parsons et al. 1976). The 1975 experiments had an initial concentration of 40 µg/litre nonvolatile petroleum hydrocarbons which dropped to 20 µg/litre after 3 days. The losses appeared to be due primarily to microbial degradation and adsorption to sinking particles. The microbial degradation rate of paraffins and low molecular aromatics, but not the degradation rate of high molecular weight aromatics such as fluorene and benzpyrene, increased markedly in the petroleum treated enclosure within one day. Three days after petroleum addition naphthalene degradation rate increased from 0 2 to 2 5 µg/litre/day. The major changes in poplations seen in 1975 after treatment with petroleum were a drastic decline in diatoms followed by a bloom of the microflagellate, C. kappa , which replaced diatoms as the dominant phytoplankter. This in turn was followed by an increase in tintinnids and rotifers, presumably feeding on the microflagelltes. The control enclosure was dominated by the diatom, Cerataulina bergonii, during the course of the experiment (19 days) although for 3 days a small flagellate bloom was also observed. Thus, as a result of the addition of fuel oil there was a major change in the ecosystem of the enclosure in terms of type of primary and secondary producers.