|Culturing technologies: new developments|
Braaten, B.; Schei, I. (1989). Culturing technologies: new developments, in: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. pp. 973-992
In: De Pauw, N. et al. (Ed.) (1989). Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. European Aquaculture Society: Bredene, Belgium. ISBN 90-71625-03-6. 1-592 pp., more
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Aquaculture technology is developing rapidly in the western hemisphere, particularly in the area of intensive finfish production. In freshwater extensive farming has been the dominating method for centuries. More intensive methods for freshwater pond culture are now being tested for a number of species, such as tank- and cage culture of tilapia, but this is still on an experimental basis. In northern Europe the intensive production plants have been developed with a high degree of automation. Fish are now being fed automatically, graded, vaccinated and monitored continuously. Systems for mass production of marine larvae have been developed and are now commercialized. Highly sophisticated systems for monitoring water quality and farm surveillance have been developed, which have greatly improved security. In the marine environment, the development of cage culture techniques has been the most significant factor. Lack of adequate sites and increasing demands for coastal property have forced the development of large, robust cages which can withstand open sea conditions. Another line of development has been land based technology or closed systems in the sea for production of market size fish. All solutions are costly and require special engineering techniques, product quality and durability etc. Only high price farmed products can justify the necessary investments in such systems. There is an increasing need for water re-use and treatment technology. Pollution problems and danger of spreading of diseases have created particular interest for recycling systems. These systems seem to be best fitted for fry and fingerling production and for the ongrowing of hardy species such as eel and carp. No commercial system has yet been developed for seawater.