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Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture
Sorgeloos, P.; Dhert, P.; Candreva, P. (2001). Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture. Aquaculture 200(1-2): 147-159. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00698-6
In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0044-8486, more
Peer reviewed article

Also published as
  • Sorgeloos, P.; Dhert, P.; Candreva, P. (2001). Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture, in: (2001). VLIZ Coll. Rep. 31(2001). VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, 31: pp. chapter 56, more

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 54679 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Animal nutrition; Arachidonic acid; Fatty acids; Fish larvae; Food organisms; Marine fish; Nutritive value; Rearing; Vitamin C; Vitamin E; Artemia Leach, 1819 [WoRMS]; Artemia franciscana Kellog, 1906 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    live food; brine shrimp; hatching; enrichment; HUFA; vitamin C

Authors  Top 
  • Sorgeloos, P., more
  • Dhert, P., more
  • Candreva, P.

Abstract
    Since no artificial feed formulation is yet available to completely substitute for Artemia, feeding live prey to young fish larvae still remains essential in commercial hatchery operations. The nutritional quality of commercially available Artemia strains being relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), it is essential and common practice to enrich these live prey with emulsions of marine oils. In Artemia, the most commonly applied boosting technique is a 24-h enrichment period after hatching. However, the variability of enrichment studied in one Artemia strain (Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA) by the ICES Working Group on Mass Rearing of Juvenile Fish, showed a high variability in fatty acid bioaccumulation under laboratory or commercial conditions. To avoid the variation originating from differences in commercial preparations, standardized ICES emulsions with different HUFA and DHA/EPA ratios have been formulated and are available for research purposes. It should be emphasized, however, that the enrichment technique has limitations as Artemia are selectively catabolizing some of the nutrients such as DHA and phospholipids. Research on the kinetics of DHA catabolism in various Artemia strains has shown that DHA catabolism is strain-dependent and could partially be overcome by the use of strains of different geographical origin. Nowadays, various enrichment emulsions have been formulated differing in the fatty acid composition of their triglycerides. In this respect, the traditional formulations rich in EPA have been replaced by new products rich in DHA and arachidonic acid. To reduce the risks for oxidation of these fatty acids, higher concentrations of vitamin E are incorporated into the emulsions. Also, vitamin C has been incorporated in booster formulations that increase the level of ascorbic acid in Artemia to 2000 ppm. All these changes in the formulation of the enrichment diets offer more possibilities to cover the needs of different species and help to reduce problems related to diseases, stress resistance, malformation, and pigmentation in numerous fish species.

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