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Impact of high water carbon dioxide levels on Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.): Effects on fish performance, vertebrae composition and structure
Martens, L.G.; Witten, P.E.; Fivelstad, S.; Huysseune, A.; Saevareid, B.; Vikesa, V.; Obach, A. (2006). Impact of high water carbon dioxide levels on Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.): Effects on fish performance, vertebrae composition and structure. Aquaculture 261(1): 80-88. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.06.031
In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam; London; New York; Oxford; Tokyo. ISSN 0044-8486, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 280204 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Atlantic salmon; carbon dioxide; growth; minerals; bone histology;

Authors  Top 
  • Martens, L.G.
  • Witten, P.E., more
  • Fivelstad, S.
  • Huysseune, A., more
  • Saevareid, B.
  • Vikesa, V.
  • Obach, A.

Abstract
    The role of high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on fish performance, bone structure/composition and as a potential cause of spinal deformities was studied. Two groups of fish were exposed to a low (control) and a high level of CO, for 135 days during the freshwater period. After smoltification, the fish were transferred to seawater and followed up for 517 days until they reached harvest weight (3.1 kg BW).
    Differences in body weight between the control and high CO2 groups were observed. At the end of the freshwater period, average weight in the group exposed to high CO2 levels was 20.9% lower than in the control group. Specific growth rates (SGR) from the start of the experiment (10 g BW) to smolt stage were 1.63 +/- 0.04 and 1.36 +/- 0.01 for the control group and the high CO2 group, respectively. Differences in body weight were maintained during the initial stages of the seawater period, but were not observed at harvest weight.
    Nephrocalcinosis was not observed in any of the experimental groups at the end of the freshwater period and no external signs of spinal deformities were observed either at smolt stage or at harvest weight. X-rays revealed mild abnormalities in some vertebrae bodies, which could not be related to any experimental group. Despite the lack of signs of pathological bone alterations, the histological examination suggested that the exposure to high CO2 levels resulted in an increase in trabeculae volume and a higher rate of bone remodeling at the end of the freshwater period. Furthermore, fish exposed to a high CO2 level presented a higher bone ash content at the end of the freshwater period. These differences could not be observed at the end of the grow-out period.

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